Monday, February 2, 2015



                            Pollution Science 101 -   

          Texas Industry Pollution Investigated


                           
                            Texas vs BP oil )
                                              

                                    
                                                Edited by Michael J. Ross

                                              ( Last Update: August 17th, 2015 )
                                          
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 The following documents will detail evidence into the corruption in the state of Texas. This report includes big industry pollution, that continues to harm the state of Texas. This includes how other oil, mining and petrochemical companies, are changing the ways of the ecosystem & environment in Texas. We are confident in our decision, to state that these companies mentioned in this report, are in fact, terraforming the land that we see, in the state of Texas.  The second part of this report, deals with corruption of the BP mining company. This includes the damage being done, in and around the state of Texas, by different mining and chemical companies. 


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Part 1: Texas Industry pollution Investigated

Chapter 1: Uranium mining in Texas
Chapter 2: Radioactive landfills & injection wells in Texas
Chapter 3: Polluted Waterways
Chapter 4: Texas Air pollution
Chapter 5: Pesticides
Chapter 6: Endangered animals in Texas
Chapter 7: Texas superfund sites & Brownfield sites

 Part 2: Texas vs BP Oil

Chapter 8: Texas vs BP Oil
Chapter 9: DuPont & BP Oil
Chapter 10: The BP oil spill Investigation
Chapter 11: BP History 


 Part 3: Sustainable future?

Chapter 12: Agenda 21
Chapter 13: Texas prisons
Chapter 14: Human Trafficking, Smuggling & Kidnapping ( New chapter created on August 9th, 2015)








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 Part 1: Texas Industry pollution Investigated


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Introduction:

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Under George W. Bush's leadership, Texas ranks number one in a many categories of pollution and environmental degradation. For example, Texas is:

    #1 in the Emission of Ozone Causing Air Pollution Chemicals
    #1 in Toxic Chemical releases into the Air

    #1 in use of Deep Well Injectors as method of Waste Disposal
    #1 in counties listed in top 20 of Emitting Cancer Causing Chemicals
    #1 in Total Number of Hazardous Waste Incinerators
    #1 in Environmental Justice Title 6 complaints
    #1 in production of Cancer causing Benzene & Vinyl Chloride
    #1 Largest Sludge Dump in Country




http://www.txpeer.org/Bush/



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Chapter 1: Uranium mining in Texas

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Energy's Latest Battleground: Fracking For Uranium

 http://www.forbes.com/sites/christopherhelman/2013/01/23/fracking-for-uranium/

 

 February 11, 2013

 

 No tour of Uranium Energy Corp.’s processing plant in Hobson, Tex. is complete until CEO Amir Adnani pries the top off a big black steel drum and invites you to peer inside. There, filled nearly to the brim, is an orange-yellow powder that UEC mined out of the South Texas countryside.

 From the 1950s through the early 1980s big oil and chemical companies like Union Carbide, Exxon, Chevron, Conoco and even U.S. Steel mined uranium in South Texas. Not only did they find a lot of the stuff while hunting for oil and gas, but the federal government, amid the Cold War, even required that they also run tests in every oil and gas well to check for the presence of uranium. The oil companies sold their yellowcake to the government for the production of nuclear weapons and reactor fuel. “Back then every company was down here,” recalls Anthony, who was a young engineer for Union Carbide. “This was the stomping ground.”

But in the process, they made a mess, gouging out muddy pit mines and building tailings ponds to hold toxic sludge left over from processing ore with acid. A uranium mine in Karnes County was designated a Superfund site; it remains polluted, as does the nearby Falls City uranium mill site, where, the Department of Energy says, “contaminants of potential concern are cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, nickel, sulfate and uranium.”

 

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Texas Sees Renewed Push for Uranium Mining

 April 15, 2012

 

 

 At the back of a South Texas uranium processing facility, a few dozen black container drums stood outside, waiting to be shipped. Each was filled with about $50,000 worth of yellowcake, a powdery substance created from raw uranium.

“That’s pretty close to a Lexus in every drum,” said Gregory Kroll, the superintendent of the site, which is run by Corpus Christi-based Uranium Energy Corporation. The company mines the uranium in Duval County and brings it here for processing, before sending it on to a plant in Illinois, where it is further refined.
Company officials hope that the Hobson plant will increase its yellowcake production, now at 200,000 to 250,000 pounds per year, far below the plant's capacity. Uranium has been mined in Texas for decades, but companies see a potential hike in demand for their product. They are ramping up for a new push, despite concerns from environmental groups that past operations have not been sufficiently cleaned up and pose a threat to aquifers that people drink from.

 

 

https://www.texastribune.org/2012/04/15/texas-sees-renewed-push-uranium-mining/

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Uranium Mining Pollution
near the King Ranch

 

 http://www.txpeer.org/toxictour/uri.html

 This week's stop on the Texas Toxic Tour takes us to Kleberg County, in Southeast Texas, near the famous King Ranch. This is the story of Teo Saenz and his family and neighbors, who are struggling to protect their land and water from pollution from Uranium Resources Inc.'s underground mine, and from regulatory neglect from the state government. Listen and watch this story unfold through interviews with area residents and pictures of URI's mining operations.

 Arriving in 1839, Teo's family was among the first settlers in the area. "My wife's grandfather came to this area, so we all have a very deep respect for the land, and the future for our kids, and the next generation," he says. Now Teo and his neighbors live next to an underground or "in-situ" uranium mine run by Uranium Resources Inc.

Teo's family and neighbors and the City of Kingsville use the Goliad aquifer for their drinking water. Because of concerns about contamination from radioactive and chemically toxic substances such as arsenic, molybdenum, and selenium caused by uranium mining operations, several of Teo's neighbors have had to shut down their water wells. "We're about three quarters of a mile from the [mining] production area, so we would be the first ones hit by any migration of uranium or radium or arsenic," explains Teo.









  For years Teo and his neighbors have tried to get Uranium Resources Inc. to clean up the heavy metals and radioactive materials created during the their mining operation as required by their Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission (TNRCC) permit, to no avail. Now the company is on the verge of declaring bankruptcy, ceasing operations, and leaving Texas taxpayers with a massive pollution clean-up job.


Radioactive Spills

Spills of highly radioactive water containing the leached-out uranium, other toxic materials and uranium-heavy process fluids are common in the in-situ uranium mining process. Hundreds, if not thousands of spills have occurred at the Texas mines, documented in part by thousands of pages of self-reporting sent to the TNRCC by the mining companies. In the recent 5-month period from January to May 1999 at the URI mine, at least three spills totaling 15,000 gallons of uranium-contaminated water have occurred.

Winning the Battle -- Losing the Aquifer?
Over two years after the TNRCC allowed Area 3 mining to begin, Kleburg County and Teo Saenz and his neighbors won the legal battle for the right to a contested case hearing to decide whether the permit should have ever been approved. The Travis County District Court ruled on February 29, 2000 that the TNRCC must grant a hearing on URI's plan to open a new uranium mining area. This ruling marks the sixth time in the last several years that a court has had to step in to protect citizens rights to participate in permit decisions implemented by the Bush-appointed TNRCC Commissioners.
But the damage had already been done. After mining as much uranium as it could from Area 3, URI stopped mining months ago. In a March 31, 2000 press release, URI admits, "the company has exhausted all of its available sources of cash to support continuing operations and will be unable to continue in business beyond June 2000 unless it can secure a cash infusion."



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Uranium Mining in Texas

History of Uranium Mining in Texas
Corporations began mining uranium in Texas in the mid-1950's. The industry's early history of unregulated open pit mining resulted in companies dumping tons of radioactive and heavy metal waste in towns south and southeast of San Antonio -- most notably, at the Conoco/Conquista site in Karnes County, at the Chevron site in Panna Maria, also in Karnes County, and at Exxon's Ray Point site in Live Oak, County. (Source: 71st Texas State Legislature Report on Regulation of Uranium Mill Tailings and Waste...). In one lawsuit with plaintiffs numbering over 1,000 and another suit with approximately 600 plaintiffs, workers and their family members and citizens in the areas of the mining alleged personal injury and property damage.
Live Oak County farmer/rancher Jeff Sibley's family lived through this early history. He wrote an account, 'Uranium Mining in Texas', drawing from his own experiences and from his research of Texas State agency records.



http://www.uraniuminfo.org/uranium-mining-texas

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How
Is Uranium Mined in Texas ?

 http://www.tgpc.state.tx.us/subcommittees/POE/FAQs/Uhow_mined_FAQ.pdf


The two uranium mining techniques that have been used in Texas are open pit mining and in situ mining. Shallow uranium deposits that occurred above groundwater at depths typically no deeper than 300 feet in Karnes County were mined simply by digging open pits. Most of the open pit mining for uranium occurred in Karnes County, although some occurred in Gonzales, Atascosa, Live Oak, and McMullen counties. Deeper deposits in Brooks, Kleberg, Jim Hogg, Duval, Webb, Bee, Live Oak, and Karnes counties have been mined using in situ mining techniques.
In situ mining involves injecting fluids into the ground to dissolve minerals, then
pumping the fluids to the surface where they are processed to recover the minerals.
In situ mining for uranium generally reverses the process by which nature formed the uranium deposits. A leaching solution is injected into the uranium-bearing zone through injection wells arranged in a pattern designed to efficiently recover the uranium. The leaching solution circulates through the uranium-bearing zone and dissolves the uranium.
The uranium-bearing solution is then recovered through production wells (see Figure 1). In the past, the leaching solution was an acid solution. More recently, the leaching solution typically consists of groundwater supplemented with oxygen and bicarbonateions, which is safer and better for the environment. At the surface, this solution is processed to remove the uranium. The water is then refortified with oxygen and bicarbonate ions and reused for additional in situ mining.

   

Exploration drilling for uranium and open pit mining of uranium are regulated by the Railroad Commission of Texas (RRC). There are no longer any active open pit uranium mines in Texas. Most of the old open pit mines and mill sites have been reclaimed through a program managed by the RRC.

In situ mining and uranium processing plants are regulated by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). There are five active in situ uranium mining sites in the state – one in Brooks County, one in Kleberg County, and three in Duval County – and one inactive in situ processing facility in Karnes
County, presently undergoing license renewal. In addition, an in situ uranium mining permit application for a site in Goliad County is pending.

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In Texas, Abandoned Oil Equipment Spurs Pollution Fears



Abandoned oil field equipment is a common problem in Texas, which is home to vast numbers of old wells that were never properly sealed. Some remain from the heady decades of the early- to mid-20th century, before current standards kicked in. In recent decades, regulators have worked to plug the old wells so they do not act as a conduit for liquid pollutants to enter groundwater. But some fear that the recent surge in oil drilling, brought about by the modern practice of hydraulic fracturing, will set off worrisome encounters with the old wells.

“Not every unplugged well leads to pollution, but a high percentage of wells that are left unplugged do present pollution hazards,” said Scott Anderson, an oil and gas expert based in Austin with the Environmental Defense Fund.


 http://www.texastribune.org/2013/06/09/texas-abandoned-oil-equipment-spurs-pollution-fear/

 

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Uranium series disequilibrium in the Bargmann property area of Karnes County, Texas

http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/631192


Historical evidence is presented for natural uranium series radioactive disequilibrium in uranium bearing soils in the Bargmann property area of karnes County on the Gulf Coastal Plain of south Texas. The early history of uranium exploration in the area is recounted and records of disequilibrium before milling and mining operations began are given. The property contains an open pit uranium mine associated with a larger ore body. In 1995, the US Department of Energy (DOE) directed Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate the Bargmann tract for the presence of uranium mill tailings (ORNL 1996). There was a possibility that mill tailings had washed onto or blown onto the property from the former tailings piles in quantities that would warrant remediation under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action Project. Activity ratios illustrating disequilibrium between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 238}U in background soils during 1986 are listed and discussed. Derivations of uranium mass-to-activity conversion factors are covered in detail.


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PANTEX: Pollution in the Panhandle

 The Texas Toxic Tour stops this week in the Texas Panhandle--home to the nation's nuclear weapons disassembly and temporary plutonium storage facility. This is the story of Doris and Phil Smith, farmers living next to the plant, whose well water may soon be contaminated with the creeping plume of contaminants emanating from the plant. Watch the video interview with the Smiths to hear a moving and informative firsthand account of their fight against not only the weapons plant, but also against the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission. "A farmer spends his entire life propagating life," muses Phil Smith in the video, "and right across the road we're combating a facility that has no other means than death."



Nukes in North Texas

Just 17 miles north of Amarillo sits the Pantex Nuclear Weapons Plant, a Department of Defense facility which formerly assembled nuclear weapons now dismantles old ones and maintains newer ones. "Pantex is scheduled to store in excess of 20,000 plutonium pits. At present there are 12,000 pits that are stored in above ground earthen bunkers that were used back in 1942 during the war times. They were used to store conventional weapons, they were not ever intended to store plutonium pits that have a half-life of 24,000 years," explains Doris. Designated as a Superfund cleanup site by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1994 after years of contaminating the region, Pantex is currently regulated by the federal Department of Energy (DOE), along with statewide oversight by the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC).(1)

Aquifer at Risk

The Pantex facility rests on 16, 000 acres(2) directly above the Ogallala Aquifer, the primary source of water in the region. Local residents, some of whom are located within a half-mile of the facility,(3) get their drinking water from wells which tap into the Ogallala. The aquifer also supplies the City of Amarillo. Not only is the Panhandle rich farm country, but large numbers of beef cattle are raised there. "This 26-county area produces twenty-five percent of the nation's" fed beef," explains Phil. "Iowa beef [a local producer] is three miles from the Pantex site. The water they are using comes directly from the Pantex site... Over 5,000 cows are processed there each day," Doris adds.



http://www.txpeer.org/toxictour/pantex.html

 

 

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Revealed: Texas officials covered up dangerously radioactive tap water for years

 

 12 Nov 2010

 Texas officials charged with protecting the environment and public health have for years made arbitrary subtractions to the measured levels of radiation delivered by water utilities across the state, according to a series of investigative reports out of Houston.

Those subtractions, based on the test results’ margin of error, made all the difference for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ): without the reduction, demonstrated levels of dangerous radiation would have been in excess of federal limits for years.
This was being done in direct contravention of an order by the US Environmental Protection Agency, which told state regulators in 2000 to stop subtracting the margin of error.-


- Thanks to the TCEQ’s under-reporting of radioactive content, one particular water provider in Harris County was able to skirt needed maintenance for years, even though uncensored tests showed radiation was almost always above legal limits.
Independent tests, the station noted, showed that some of the radiation contained harmful alpha particles, which can cause cell mutations and increase the risk of cancer.
The practice of under-reporting radiation continued until last year, when the EPA once again demanded Texas comply with the law.
The state, governed a large majority of Republicans, has long flouted the EPA’s air quality standards, with TCEQ officials claiming the federal agency does not have the authority to regulate greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act.
“What was illegal and a bad idea yesterday is illegal and a bad idea today,” TCEQ chairman Bryan W. Shaw told The Dallas Morning News. “We won’t see any environmental benefits from this. We’ll just see the additional bureaucracy associated with permitting in this state and across the U.S.” -

 http://www.rawstory.com/rs/2010/11/texas-tap-water-contaminated-radiation-independent-tests-find/

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Spatial Distribution of Orofacial Cleft Defect Births in Harris County, Texas, and Radium in the Public Water Supplies: A Persistent Association?    

http://www.texmed.org/Template.aspx?id=7287#sthash.8WFGENB4.dpuf

Spatial Distribution of Orofacial Cleft Defect Births in Harris County, Texas, and Radium in the Public Water Supplies: A Persistent Association? - See more at: http://www.texmed.org/Template.aspx?id=7287#sthash.8WFGENB4.dpuf

Geospatial tools were used to evaluate radioactivity in drinking water and an association with cleft birth defects. From the use of a space-time clustering program (SaTScan), a significantly increased relative risk of 3.0 (95% CI, 1.8-4.3) for cleft births in northwest Harris County was previously reported for the period from 1990 through 1994. This cluster occurred in an area containing water wells with alpha radiation that exceeded allowed standards.

New data for a decade later (from 1999 through 2002) from the recently formed Texas Birth Defects Registry and concurrent data for radium in tap water from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality made it possible to conduct a follow-up investigation. Rates of cleft birth defects were again significantly ( P <.001) greater both in ZIP codes and census tracts with elevated radium concentration in drinking water. Adjustment for sex of newborn, maternal age, race, and educational achievement did not remove this association. A persistent pattern in two separate study periods makes the reported association more robust and noteworthy for the attention of Texas physicians.

Geospatial tools were used to evaluate radioactivity in drinking water and an association with cleft birth defects. From the use of a space-time clustering program (SaTScan), a significantly increased relative risk of 3.0 (95% CI, 1.8-4.3) for cleft births in northwest Harris County was previously reported for the period from 1990 through 1994. This cluster occurred in an area containing water wells with alpha radiation that exceeded allowed standards.
New data for a decade later (from 1999 through 2002) from the recently formed Texas Birth Defects Registry and concurrent data for radium in tap water from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality made it possible to conduct a follow-up investigation. Rates of cleft birth defects were again significantly ( P <.001) greater both in ZIP codes and census tracts with elevated radium concentration in drinking water. Adjustment for sex of newborn, maternal age, race, and educational achievement did not remove this association. A persistent pattern in two separate study periods makes the reported association more robust and noteworthy for the attention of Texas physicians.
- See more at: http://www.texmed.org/Template.aspx?id=7287#sthash.8WFGENB4.dpuf

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Effect of biogas generation on radon emissions from landfills receiving
radium-bearing waste from shale gas development

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/10962247.2012.696084

 

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Radon Distribution in Domestic Water of Texas

 https://info.ngwa.org/GWOL/pdf/882546405.PDF

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Radon in Ground Waters of the South Texas Uranium District

http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CB4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.researchgate.net%2Fprofile%2FPhilippe_Tissot%2Fpublication%2F228567249_Radon_in_Ground_Waters_of_the_South_Texas_Uranium_District%2Flinks%2F0c960519ef69ecb1bc000000.pdf&ei=XEq5VJ2vI4W0ogSKs4D4Aw&usg=AFQjCNE7O6ipMtSAHzOGeNCJb19KmOgH0g&sig2=PaMLh9H3RRGxvMAFGlL5yQ

 

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EPA's Map of Radon Zones Texas

http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyNET.exe/000008NB.TXT?ZyActionD=ZyDocument&Client=EPA&Index=1991+Thru+1994&Docs=&Query=&Time=&EndTime=&SearchMethod=1&TocRestrict=n&Toc=&TocEntry=&QField=&QFieldYear=&QFieldMonth=&QFieldDay=&IntQFieldOp=0&ExtQFieldOp=0&XmlQuery=&File=D%3A\zyfiles\Index%20Data\91thru94\Txt\00000006\000008NB.txt&User=ANONYMOUS&Password=anonymous&SortMethod=h|-&MaximumDocuments=1&FuzzyDegree=0&ImageQuality=r75g8/r75g8/x150y150g16/i425&Display=p|f&DefSeekPage=x&SearchBack=ZyActionL&Back=ZyActionS&BackDesc=Results%20page&MaximumPages=1&ZyEntry=1&SeekPage=x&ZyPURL


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Chapter 2: Radioactive landfills & injection wells in Texas

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Are Drilling Waste Pits a Threat to Texas Groundwater?


In one of the hottest plays for natural gas drilling, Bob Patterson wonders if what the drilling industry leaves behind will come back to haunt the community.

“It’s just a ticking time bomb before we have major aquifer contamination,” Patterson told StateImpact.

Patterson manages the Upper Trinity Groundwater Conservation District. His office monitors the drilling industry in North Texas, home to the Barnett Shale, which is producing some of the greatest volumes of natural gas in the country.

Reserve Pits

Patterson’s fear is about what are called reserve pits. The earthen pits are dug on the site of a drilling rig. Into the pits go thousands of barrels-worth of drilling waste. The waste comes back up out of the well as the drill cuts thousand of feet down into the earth. The waste can be a muddy, oily mix of saltwater, sand, and drilling fluids and can contain chemicals and diesel fuel.

Texas does little to regulate the pits. For most reserve pits, Texas does not require permits or inspection. They can be left unlined (as compared with sanitary landfills for household trash which are extensively regulated). Texas rules do state that the pits shouldn’t pollute surface or groundwater.
“Generally speaking, it is a very precarious situation. It’s sort of a toss of a coin if the regulations have any effectiveness at all,” Patterson told StateImpact Texas.

Concern over Leaching

The pits have caused concern for decades. A 1987 national report to Congress by the U.S. Environmental Protection agency, which was recently published by the New York Times, said that “leaching of reserve pit constituents into ground water and soil is a problem in the Texas/Oklahoma zone. Reserve pit liners are generally not required in Texas and Oklahoma.” (Most states do not allow unlined pits according to an overview by a Houston law firm).

The EPA report said that without the benefit of a liner, there was a “higher potential” for pollution including “barium, chromium, and arsenic” to reach groundwater.

Six years ago, New Mexico issued a “pit rule” that all but banned drilling sites from using reserve pits that were dug near rigs. The drilling industry complained the ban was driving up the cost of drilling and prompting drillers to head to Texas. Last year, New Mexico relaxed some of the restrictions.




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Injection Wells: The Poison Beneath Us

 

In September 2003, Ed Cowley got a call to check out a pool of briny water in a bucolic farm field outside Chico, Texas. Nearby, he said, a stand of trees had begun to wither, their leaves turning crispy brown and falling to the ground.
Chico, a town of about 1,000 people 50 miles northwest of Fort Worth, lies in the heart of Texas' Barnett Shale. Gas wells dot the landscape like mailboxes in suburbia. A short distance away from the murky pond, an oil services company had begun pumping millions of gallons of drilling waste into an injection well.
Regulators refer to such waste as salt water or brine, but it often includes less benign contaminants, including fracking chemicals, benzene and other substances known to cause cancer.

The well had been authorized by the Railroad Commission of Texas, which once regulated railways but now oversees 260,000 oil and gas wells and 52,000 injection wells. (Another agency, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, regulates injection wells for waste from other industries.)
Before issuing the permit, commission officials studied mathematical models showing that waste could be safely injected into a sandstone layer about one-third of a mile beneath the farm. They specified how much waste could go into the well, under how much pressure, and calculated how far it would dissipate underground. As federal law requires, they also reviewed a quarter-mile radius around the site to make sure waste would not seep back toward the surface through abandoned wells or other holes in the area.

Yet the precautions failed. "Salt water" brine migrated from the injection site and shot back to the surface through three old well holes nearby.

 http://www.propublica.org/article/injection-wells-the-poison-beneath-us

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At Least 40% of Active Texas Landfills are Leaking Toxins - 

 December 17, 2013

December 17, 2013

 AUSTIN, Texas – As the battle over the site of a proposed landfill in central Texas continues, a new analysis is raising concerns statewide.

The study finds that 40 percent of active landfills in the state that monitor their impact on groundwater are leaking toxins, and James Abshier, founder of a group called Environmental Protection in the Interest of Caldwell County, says it's likely more.

"That's just landfills that have measurement devices,” he points out. “Active, running landfills. That's not closed landfills and it's just the ones where the contamination has reached the sensors."

The new data on contamination is from Texas Campaign for the Environment, and it comes as Caldwell County considers a plan for a new landfill that would take in 25 million tons of trash and operate for 40 years.

The company proposing the landfill wants it located just off Texas State Highway 130, which Abshier and others have been fighting against because, he says, the land in the area is unstable and three major aquifers run through or nearby.

"One is the Carrizo-Wilcox, which is a major aquifer for over 12 million people,” he says. “And the landfill is going to be right over the Leona. The Leona is an aquifer that feeds the Carrizo-Wilcox, so there's definitely a chance of contamination into the water system."

AUSTIN, Texas – As the battle over the site of a proposed landfill in central Texas continues, a new analysis is raising concerns statewide.

The study finds that 40 percent of active landfills in the state that monitor their impact on groundwater are leaking toxins, and James Abshier, founder of a group called Environmental Protection in the Interest of Caldwell County, says it's likely more.

"That's just landfills that have measurement devices,” he points out. “Active, running landfills. That's not closed landfills and it's just the ones where the contamination has reached the sensors."

The new data on contamination is from Texas Campaign for the Environment, and it comes as Caldwell County considers a plan for a new landfill that would take in 25 million tons of trash and operate for 40 years.

The company proposing the landfill wants it located just off Texas State Highway 130, which Abshier and others have been fighting against because, he says, the land in the area is unstable and three major aquifers run through or nearby.

"One is the Carrizo-Wilcox, which is a major aquifer for over 12 million people,” he says. “And the landfill is going to be right over the Leona. The Leona is an aquifer that feeds the Carrizo-Wilcox, so there's definitely a chance of contamination into the water system."
- See more at: http://www.publicnewsservice.org/2013-12-17/waste-reduction-recycling/at-least-40-of-active-texas-landfills-are-leaking-toxins/a36302-1#sthash.ui72bayo.dpuf

 

http://www.publicnewsservice.org/2013-12-17/waste-reduction-recycling/at-least-40-of-active-texas-landfills-are-leaking-toxins/a36302-1#sthash.ui72bayo.dpuf

At Least 40% of Active Texas Landfills are Leaking Toxins - See more at: http://www.publicnewsservice.org/2013-12-17/waste-reduction-recycling/at-least-40-of-active-texas-landfills-are-leaking-toxins/a36302-1#sthash.ui72bayo.dpuf


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UPDATED: Problems With a West Texas Radioactive Waste Dump Get Buried

 

The preferred method for getting rid of radioactive waste is to bury it deep underground and hope to never see it again. Texas’ approach to regulating radioactive waste is similar. Instead of a public airing, problems with a burgeoning West Texas nuclear dump often get buried.

Case in point: In 2011, the Texas Legislature tasked the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) with studying whether Waste Control Specialists, the company that owns the dump in Andrews County, could cover potential liabilities and decommissioning costs.

It’s an important question because although the dump’s profits flow to its owner, Dallas billionaire Harold Simmons, the state and federal governments will eventually own the dump and its millions of cubic feet of radioactive waste. In other words, the taxpayers could be on the hook for a lot of dough. What’s to guarantee that Waste Control won’t take the profits and run? What if the dump leaks? What if the company goes belly-up? That’s where, in theory, financial assurance comes in. Typically, high-risk facilities like those for hazardous and radioactive waste are secured with a bond, letter of credit or insurance. But in November 2011, TCEQ allowed Waste Control to use 12 million shares of Titanium Metals Corp., another Simmons company, to provide financial assurance for the dump.
It was a highly unorthodox arrangement that critics panned as a “polluters’ dream.” Titanium Metals’ stock plummeted not long after the deal was sealed. (Eventually, in November, another company purchased Titanium Metals for $2.9 billion. Simmons now uses 9.8 million shares of Kronos, another of his companies, to secure the dump.)

 http://www.texasobserver.org/problems-with-a-west-texas-radioactive-waste-dump-get-buried/

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County of 95 Sees Opportunity in Toxic Waste

 AUG. 7, 2014

 

 http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/08/us/a-texas-county-sees-opportunity-in-toxic-waste.html?_r=0

 

MENTONE, Tex. — Loving County is big, dry and stretches for miles, and is the perfect place, local officials say, to store high-level radioactive waste.
Officials here hope to entice the federal government — with $28 billion to spend on the disposal of high-level radioactive waste — into considering the possibility...

 About midway between El Paso and Midland-Odessa, Loving County, population 95, according to the Census Bureau, is spread across 650 square miles or so, about twice the size of New York City. The population could grow 40 times larger and still meet the government definition of “highly rural.” Mentone, the county seat, has a courthouse, a single gas station, a food truck and not much else.


 “There are no lawyers, no bank, no hospital, no real estate agency, nothing,” said Mozelle Carr, the county clerk. Ms. Carr is Mr. Jones’s sister. There are not even enough people for a fully independent local government.

The family, which makes up about a quarter of the voters in the county, is not unanimous in its support of a storage site. Their father, Elgin R. Jones, who goes by Punk and was sheriff from 1965 to 1992, said he foresaw trouble in anything radioactive. But he admits to being in the minority; even his wife, Mary Belle Jones, the mother of Ms. Carr and Skeet Jones, is wavering. While any decision is in the hands of the county commission, with so few residents, the opinion of the public — and the family — is crucial.

The cancellation of the federal government’s plan to bury high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain in Nevada means that the waste will remain at about 70 reactor sites around the country until there is some other plan. Loving County has visions of storing spent fuel from closed reactors in aboveground casks, and later, building a processing plant that would recover unused uranium, and plutonium for reuse, making the rest easier to bury. County officials are working with a company that is hoping to negotiate a deal with the state and federal governments. Two counties just across the state line in New Mexico are also seeking to become storage sites.

 

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 Texas leaking landfills list 2013 

 

 

http://www.texasenvironment.org/landfill_reports.cfm


This spreadsheet uses data from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) and shows the list of Texas landfills that are leaking hazardous materials into groundwater monitoring wells. This is the 2013 report, using data from 2012.




CITY OF WEATHERFORD LANDFILL
CITY OF DALLAS MCCOMMAS BLUFF LANDFILL
MESQUITE CREEK LANDFILL
CITY OF LUBBOCK LANDFILL
CITY OF AMARILLO LANDFILL
CITY OF SAN ANGELO LANDFILL
CITY OF BROWNSVILLE
ALTAIR DISPOSAL SERVICES LLC LANDFILL
CITY OF KINGSVILLE LANDFILL
WMTX AUSTIN COMMUNITY RECYCLING & DISPOSAL FACILITY
BFI MCCARTY RD LANDFILL
CITY OF ALICE LANDFILL
CITY OF BIG SPRING LANDFILL
CITY OF ARLINGTON LANDFILL
CITY OF LAMESA LANDFILL
WASTE MANAGEMENT HILLSIDE LANDFILL
NORTH TEXAS MUNICIPAL WATER DISTRICT LANDFILL/MCKINNEY LANDFILL
WASTE MANAGEMENT NEW BOSTON LANDFILL
CITY OF NACOGDOCHES LANDFILL
CITY OF EDINBURG LANDFILL
CITY OF GRAND PRAIRIE LANDFILL
DFW RECYCLING AND DISPOSAL FACILITY (WASTE MANAGEMENT)
REPUBLIC MALOY LANDFILL
WM ATASCCOCITA RECYCLE DISPOSAL FACILITY
CITY OF FARMERS BRANCH CAMELOT LANDFILL
POLK COUNTY LANDFILL
SUNSET FARMS LANDFILL
PARIS LANDFILL
CITY OF SNYDER LANDFILL
CITY OF KERRVILLE LANDFILL
CITY OF VICTORIA LANDFILL
MEXIA LANDFILL
REGIONAL LANDFILL OF BROWNWOOD
BUFFALO CREEK LANDFILL
CITY OF DENTON LANDFILL
CITY OF MIDLAND LANDFILL
LACY-LAKEVIEW RECYCLING AND DISPOSAL FACILITY
BFI SOUTHWEST LANDFILL  
FORT HOOD LANDFILL
GREEWOOD FARMS LANDFILL
AGNELINA COUNTY LANDFILL
CITY OF CORSICANA LANDFILL
CASCO HAULING AND EXCAVATION LANDFILL
CITY OF SAN ANTONIO PEARSALL ROAD LANDFILL
CASTLE/CITY OF GARLAND LANDFILL

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ERE Student Stepp on WRE article, Phantom Springs Cave Becomes Deepest Underwater Cave in The U.S.


Texas, where cave divers measured a new depth of the cave to be approximately 140 meters; this new measurement makes Phantom Springs Cave the deepest known underwater cave in America!

April 30, 2013


The current drought in Texas threatens Phantom Springs because Texans get the majority of their water from aquifers, and this water scarcity is a major societal and economic issue. In addition to groundwater extraction, Texas’ dependence on oil is negatively affecting the status of the protected property due to more than 10 confirmed natural gas wells between Phantom Springs and the nearest town of Pecos (Iliffe, 2013). The threat of hydraulic fracturing is very high because the process requires an abundance of water, and the used and polluted water is generally disposed into nearby wells (“Hydro-Fracking”, 2013). Groundwater flow can transport solutes to nearby water sources, which puts the cave at risk of contamination (Wurbs et al., 2002). The drought has also caused the water levels inside the cave to drop, and any pumping of upstream or downstream connections can cause the water level to possibly drop below the water table. This would cause the cave to breakdown, which would destroy the unique system present in the cave, prevent scientists from further studies, and cause sinks on the surface that can destroy nearby landowner’s properties.
 

http://erengineering.wordpress.com/2013/04/30/ere-student-stepp-on-wre-article-phantom-springs-cave-becomes-deepest-underwater-cave-in-the-u-s/

 

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Journey Into Lechuguilla Cave

Posted 10.01.02

 Lechuguilla lies within this ancient coral-reef-turned-mountain range, the Guadelupe Mountains, which straddle the Texas-New Mexico border. Here, the Texas peak known as El Capitán.


 Eaten by acid

The massive gypsum deposits lining Lechuguilla's limestone walls had suggested to some geologists that its tunnels were carved not by runoff flowing from the surface—as was long considered the case with all limestone caves—but by strong chemical reactions between ancient groundwater and hydrogen sulfide rising from a deep subterranean source. Hydrogen sulfide associated with petroleum deposits in the rich Delaware Basin field was believed to have been chemically converted to sulfuric acid, which could eat into limestone like gasoline poured into a styrofoam cup. In the early 1980s, few in the geological establishment had accepted this theory, originally applied to Carlsbad Cavern. But then the discovery and early exploration of Lechuguilla had confirmed it.




http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/earth/journey-into-lechuguilla-cave.html

 

 

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 What Exactly is Karst?

 Why is Karst Important?

 Two million people in central Texas get their drinking water from the karst aquifer known as the Edwards Aquifer (Sharp and Banner, 1997). This resource is especially important for central Texas as the region becomes more urbanized. With a higher density of people, central Texas will face higher demand and increased pollution. Just like rainwater, pollutants can easily pass through the karstified limestone. Another difficulty is that streams and surface runoff entering the aquifer via sinkholes and caves bypass the natural filtration produced by seeping through soil and bedrock. This direct recharge quickly replenishes the water supply; however, it also leaves the aquifer particularly vulnerable to contamination (Drew and Hötzl, 1999).

 http://www.esi.utexas.edu/outreach/caves/karst.php

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Texas study shows water pollution near gas drilling

The effort focused on water quality in the Barnett Shale, a gas-rich geologic formation that underlies a 5,000-square-mile area in 17 counties of north Texas.
Researchers sampled 100 water wells from the Trinity and Woodbine aquifers, overlying the Barnett Shale and, as "reference sites" from the Nacatoch aquifer east of the Barnett Shale.

One piece of potential good news was that the study detected none of the family of BTEX chemicals - benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and zylenes - in the drinking water, a possible indication that chemicals used in the hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking" process had not migrated into the water wells.

But, researchers detected the highest levels of metal contaminants within 3 kilometers of natural gas wells, including several samples that had arsenic and selenium above concentrations considered safe by EPA. Areas lying outside of active drilling areas or outside the Barnett Shale did not contain the same elevated levels for most of the metals.

 http://www.wvgazette.com/News/201307260097

 

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How Oil and Gas Disposal Wells Can Cause Earthquakes

 

 http://stateimpact.npr.org/texas/tag/earthquake/

 

How Fracking Disposal Wells Can Cause Earthquakes

The culprit of earthquakes near fracking sites is not believed to be the act of drilling and fracturing the shale itself, but rather the disposal wells. Disposal wells are the final resting place for used drilling fluid. These waste wells are located thousands of feet underground, encased in layers of concrete. They usually store the waste from several different wells.There are more than 50,000 disposal wells in Texas servicing more than 216,000 active drilling wells, according the the Railroad Commission. Each well uses about 4.5 million gallons of chemical-laced water, according to hydrolicfracturing.com.
“The model I use is called the air hockey table model,” says Cliff Frohlich, a research scientist at the Institute for Geophysics at the University of Texas at Austin. “You have an air hockey table, suppose you tilt it, if there’s no air on, the puck will just sit there. Gravity wants it to move but it doesn’t because there friction [with the table surface].”
But if you turn the air on for the air hockey table, the puck slips.

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As Texas Towns Shake, Regulators Sit Still

State Oil and Gas Regulator Says No Changes Needed After Latest Earthquake Swarm

After twenty minor earthquakes in a month, residents in the small towns of Azle and Springtown outside of Fort Worth are understandably confused about why their once-stable region is now trembling on a near-daily basis.
Teachers in the Azle school district are taking a page from the California playbook and holding earthquake drills for students. Inspectors are making regular visits to the earthen Eagle Mountain Lake dam, as well as others in the area, checking for damage. (So far they’ve found none.) And locals like Rebecca Williams are constantly looking at their own homes for damage. So far she’s found cracks in her home, driveway and in a retaining wall in her backyard.
The quakes have been small, below the threshold that is known to cause significant damage. But they’ve unnerved residents like Williams, who moved out to Eagle Mountain Lake looking for some peace and quiet.
“You can actually see my house rocking from side to side,” Williams says. She was at home when the largest of the quakes (magnitude 3.6) struck on the evening of November 19th. “I tried to get up and run downstairs,” she says. “And for a moment, I couldn’t run, because the house was shaking so bad!”
So what’s behind the tremors?
There were no quakes in the Dallas-Fort Worth and surrounding areas (including Azle) before 2007, according to records from the United States Geological Survey. But the region is part of the Barnett Shale, where the drilling process known as hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking,” has taken off in recent years, leading some to question whether or not fracking is at fault.
Fracking is probably not directly causing the quakes. But a byproduct of all that drilling – wastewater – could be the culprit. Studies of other earthquake swarms in this region of Texas, as well as in other states like Arkansas and Ohio, have shown that the injection of that drilling wastewater deep underground can cause faults to slip, triggering quakes.
When drillers go after deposits of oil and gas through fracking, they’re typically using water to do it — millions of gallons per well. When that water comes back up, it’s called “flowback.” And when drillers reach the oil and gas deposits, a large amount of dirty water mixed with the oil and gas comes back up with it, called “produced water.” The standard industry practice is to dispose of that wastewater (both the fracking flowback and produced water) by injecting it deep underground.
The amount of wastewater produced by oil and gas drilling in Texas is substantial. The state is currently disposing of some 290 million barrels (or nine billion gallons) of wastewater a month. To put that number into perspective, a year’s worth of the drilling wastewater being disposed of in Texas is close to the same amount of water currently sitting in Lake Buchanan, a large reservoir that provides drinking water for Central Texas.


In some areas of Texas where that wastewater is injected into existing faults (some of which have been dormant until now) at high pressure, quakes can occur. At the same time, there are tens of thousands of disposal wells in Texas, and the geology varies across the state. Not all of them are causing quakes.
Texas also isn’t alone in seeing more shaking than its used to. ”The number of earthquakes has increased dramatically over the past few years within the central and eastern United States,” the United States Geological Survey says on its website. “More than 300 earthquakes above a magnitude 3.0 occurred in the three years from 2010-2012, compared with an average rate of 21 events per year observed from 1967-2000.” The USGS says that at some of those locations, disposal wells are behind the quakes.



-------------------------------------------------------------- 




Amid a New Swarm of Quakes, Researchers Head to Irving

 http://stateimpact.npr.org/texas/2015/01/05/amid-a-new-swarm-in-quakes-researchers-head-to-irving/


Updated 1/6/14 with more comment from Railroad Commission and information on Tuesday January 6th earthquake.

A team of seismologists headed to the North Texas town of Irving Monday.  Like some other Texas towns, Irving has experienced scores of small earthquakes lately, 20 since last September, including a magnitude 3.5 quake that struck on January 6th. And the city is hoping to figure out what’s behind the shaking.
The upsurge in quakes started in Texas around the time the oil and gas boom took hold several years ago.  Residents in many parts of the state blame the them on wastewater disposal wells, where fluid byproducts of oil and gas drilling are pumped deep into the ground.  Scientists have shown how injecting fluid into the ground can cause earthquakes.

After a spate of quakes in the North Texas town of Azle, the Railroad Commission of Texas, the state’s oil and gas regulator, hired a seismologist, Dr. David Craig Pearson, and passed new regulations for disposal wells. The Commission says it is not investigating the Irving quakes.

“The Railroad Commission is not investigating seismic activity around Irving,” Ramona Nye, a spokesperson for the Commission wrote in an email to StateImpact Texas. “Specifically, there are no disposal wells in Dallas County, and there is only one natural gas well in the vicinity, and it is an inactive well.”


--------------------------------------------------------

 

Sinkholes in Texas

 

 

October 3, 2014

 A massive sinkhole near Daisetta, Texas is seen Wednesday afternoon, May 7, 2008. The sinkhole swallowed up oil field equipment and some vehicles in southeast Texas and continued to grow.

 http://www.mysanantonio.com/news/local/slideshow/Sinkholes-in-Texas-94886/photo-6948939.php

 

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NEW MOUNTAIN RANGES FOR TEXAS MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW) LANDFILLS


http://texas.sierraclub.org/press/newsreleases/mswreport.html
Summary: In the early 1990s new standards requiring better technologies for landfills were established. Now instead of requiring the creation of new landfills that meet those standards, the state environmental regulatory agency, the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC), is letting many landfills in Texas expand vertically over old landfills -- often over landfills with no or inadequate liners and in some areas with existing ground water pollution. With the blessing of TNRCC, most landfill operators are cutting costs by building over old landfills rather than putting the trash in the ground with protection from new and better liners. Once TNRCC allowed one operator to build sky high, most others have asked to do so to compete. Mountains of wastes are one result of this policy. Many landfills will soon be the highest points for many miles around the site.
There are many problems with TNRCC's practices of encouraging these new trash mountains, including
* Grandfathering Old Landfill Technology: The use of new and safer designs and technology to improve landfills has been postponed by TNRCC for many years.
* Expanding Ground Water Pollution: Many of the vertical expansions have occurred over landfills that leak. Piling more waste on top delays clean-up and transfers the risks to future generations of Texans.
* Breaking Promises: TNRCC and many landfill operators told communities that nearby landfills would be below ground and have limited lifetimes. Landowners who have built new homes or are renovating their old homes did so based on these promises. Now TNRCC is approving mountains of trash next door with active landfills for the next 30, even 60, years.
* Impacting Communities Dramatically without Notice: Clearly the prospects of nearby mountains of waste change communities. Residents who are able to leave will do so. They will be replaced by industries attracted to cheap land or the proximity of the landfill. Residential and rural communities will become industrial. Those who can not afford to leave will face not only land depreciation but also rats, blowing wastes and odors.
* Increasing Waste Management Problems: Trash mountains have much greater problems than landfills in the ground. The new landfills make high launching pads for wastes and dusts that get blown farther off-site. Rainfall runoff is easy to retain in a pit, but, as it flows down the mountain, it can carry polutants off-site.
* "Condemning" Private Property: The landfill operators know they can get new lands cheaply by running off the neighbors. They do not have the powers of local governments to condemn the lands they want for expansion, but they have the power to make nearby residents' lives so miserable that those neighbors have to move – a de facto "condemnation" of private property. TNRCC is helping the operators in this effort by refusing to enforce the existing laws that prohibit nuisance conditions, odors, blowing wastes, rats and flies.
* Posing Threats from Industrial Waste: Under the policies of TNRCC, MWS landfills do not just take household waste, they take large amounts of asbestos and other industrial waste, even waste classified as toxic. Often there is no public notice that such wastes are passing through neighborhoods or filling the landfills.

---------------------------------------------------- 

----------------------------------------------------


---

Chapter 3: Polluted Waterways 

---

------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------

  The following documentary shows how Texas authorities hid radiated tap water levels from the public.

 --


230 Colorado mines are leaking heavy metals into state rivers

 08/16/2015

http://www.denverpost.com/environment/ci_28647978/colorado-faces-230-mines-leaking-heavy-metals-into

 

----


Drink Too Much Water? - You Need To See This!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_FqPdtCJ2Ms   


 

-------------

14.6 Million Pounds of Toxic Chemicals Dumped into Texas' Waterways

 March 22, 2012

 

 

AUSTIN - Industrial facilities dumped 14.6 million pounds of toxic chemicals into Texas’ waterways, making Texas’ waterways the fourth worst in the nation according to a new report released today by Environment Texas. Wasting Our Waterways: Industrial Toxic Pollution and the Unfulfilled Promise of the Clean Water Act also reports that the Houston Ship Channel, the Brazos River, Cottonwood Branch stream, Corpus Christi Inner Harbor and Tankersley Creek received the highest toxic discharges in Texas.
“Texas’ waterways are a polluter’s paradise right now. Polluters dump 14.6 million pounds of toxic chemicals into Texas’ lakes, rivers and streams every year,” said Luke Metzger, Director of Environment Texas. “We must turn the tide of toxic pollution by restoring Clean Water Act protections to our waterways.”

 

 http://environmenttexas.org/news/txe/146-million-pounds-toxic-chemicals-dumped-texas%E2%80%99-waterways

 

 

--------------------------------------------------

 

Report: Some Texas waterways polluted

13 million pounds of toxics dumped in 2007

Wednesday, October 21, 2009


http://www.kxan.com/news/tx_waterways_some_of_the_most_polluted

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Dishonorable Discharge: The 50 Most Polluted Rivers in the Country


5     Houston Ship Channel     TX

24     Brazos River     TX

35     Neches River     TX

http://www.ewg.org/research/dishonorable-discharge/50-most-polluted-rivers-country

 

-------------------------------- 


What Else is Swimming in Your Favorite Texas Swimming Hole?


• Bull Creek at Loop 360 exceeded TX Standards in 35% of tests and EPA Standards in 47% of tests between 2010 and 2011.

• “The Slab” on the Llano River exceeded EPA and Texas standards in 8% of samples 2010-2011.

• Stillhouse Hollow exceeded EPA and Texas standards in 19% of samples in 2010-2011.

• Bull Creek above 2222 and Lake Austin regularly showed very high samples in 2010-2011, but were not tested sufficiently to produce meaningful data.



Unfortunately, Bull Creek near Loop 360 failed both the Texas and EPA standards, and other sites such as Barton Springs, Hamilton Pool, Stillhouse Hollow, and the Slab on the Llano River tested above EPA standards in 8% or more of samples. Disconcertingly, about 50% of sites selected for the study did not have a sufficient number of samples in 2010 and 2011 on record to provide significant data.

http://environmenttexascenter.org/reports/txc/what-else-swimming-your-favorite-texas-swimming-hole


-----------------------------------

 

 

AN EXAMINATION OF GROUND WATER POLLUTION POTENTIAL THROUGH GIS MODELING

 Since ground water is one of the most important natural resources in Texas, our efforts were aimed at indicating where this resource was most susceptible, and likewise, least susceptible, to environmental degradation. Our claim was that a primary benefit of the research would be protection of Texas' ground water resources since it plays a key role in the future economic growth of Texas. Results of the GIS modeling have shown that for areas of known major and minor aquifers (about 80% of the state overlays known major or minor aquifers), almost 70% have scores less than 100 in terms of their susceptibility to contamination from industrial and municipal sources, and less than 5% have scores in the upper half of potential scores. On the other hand, susceptibility to pesticide contamination is much higher throughout Texas, with only 19% of the area having scores less than 100, but nearly 20% having scores in the upper half of potential scores.

 http://libraries.maine.edu/Spatial/gisweb/spatdb/acsm/ac94007.html

----------------------------------- 


Perry's Texas pollution problem

Texas also leads the nation in generating hazardous waste and is well known as a hazardous waste dump for our country. Our Texas Gulf Coast city of Port Arthur has received the Army's VX nerve gas waste product and incinerated it at the Veolia waste treatment facility. A paper company's waste pits, hidden in sand dunes under water for many years, contaminated the San Jacinto River and much of Galveston Bay with high levels of dioxin before anyone knew it was there.

With Perry's support, the dumping gets more dangerous. The Texas Legislature this year approved a radioactive waste facility that will receive nuclear waste from all across the nation. Waste Control Specialists (WCS) is building the facility in Andrews County, dangerously close to the Ogallala Aquifer, the largest aquifer in the world. By the way, WCS happens to be owned by Harold Simmons, who donated $1.12 million to Perry's campaign, according to a 2010 report by Texans for Public Justice.



http://www.chron.com/opinion/outlook/article/Perry-s-Texas-pollution-problem-2206612.php



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Brockovich: Midland, Texas Water Sullied


June 10, 2009

 

 http://www.cbsnews.com/news/brockovich-midland-texas-water-sullied

 

---------------------------------------------------

Hexavalent Chromium in Texas Drinking Water

http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/content/119/2/423.full

 

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MIDESSA
(MIDLAND COUNTY)
MIDLAND, TEXAS
The Site consists of three contaminated ground water plumes originating from an unidentified source(s). The contaminant plumes are located along
County Road 1290, between Interstate 20 to the south, and Interstate Business 20 to the north, in the western part of Midland County. 
The Trinity and Ogallala aquifer is the only ground water source for drinking water in the site area. The water table is shallow as 19 feet below the ground surface in the Ogallala aquifer and the base of the lower Trinity aquifer is approximately 95 –105 feet below ground surface. The Triassic red beds form the base of the aquifer. Ground water flow in the aquifer is generally to the south-southwest.

http://www.epa.gov/region6/6sf/pdffiles/midessa-tx.pdf

 

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Town Lake Bottom Sediments: A Chronicle of Water-Quality Changes in Austin, Texas, 1960–98

One of the most spectacular fish kills of recent years occurred in the Colorado River below Austin, Texas, in 1961. Shortly after daylight on Sunday morning, January 15, dead fish appeared in the new Town Lake in Austin and in the river for a distance of about 5 miles below the lake. None had been
seen the day before. On Monday there were reports of dead fish 50 miles downstream. ... By January 21, fish were being killed 100 miles downstream
.... During the last week of January the locks on the Intracoastal Waterway were closed to exclude the toxic waters from Matagorda Bay and divert them into the Gulf of Mexico.... investigators in Austin noticed an odor associated with the insecticides .... The manager of the (chemical) plant admitted that quantities of powdered insecticide had been washed into the storm sewer recently and, more significantly, he acknowledged that such disposal of insecticide spillage and
residues had been common practice for the past 10 years..... For 140 miles downstream from the lake the kill of fish must have been almost complete, for when seines were used later in an effort to discover whether any fish had escaped they came up empty. Dead fish of 27 species were observed, totaling about 1000 pounds to a mile of riverbank.
 http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs-183-99/pfd/FS_183-99.pdf


-------------------------------------------

 

 

Erath County's Booming Dairy Industry Pollutes
Texas' Waterways 

 http://www.txpeer.org/toxictour/erath.html

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STUDY TITLE: Solid Waste Pollution on Texas Beaches: A Post-MARPOL Study

REPORT TITLE: Solid Waste Pollution on Texas Beaches: A Post-MARPOL Study 
http://www.data.boem.gov/PI/PDFImages/ESPIS/3/3616.pdf

 

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Salt Water Pollution Problems in Texas 

 

Natural Pollution Natural mineral deposits in Texas. primarily chlorides and sulphates, are known to affect the quality of surface waters. The upper watersheds of the Brazos and Colorado rivers and portions of the Red River provide examples of naturally polluted water. Saline content of the water is high enough to make the water distasteful for human consumption and useless for many types of industrial consumption.
There is also a degree of natural pollution caused by animal and plant life. Another source of natural pollution is sedimentation. Soil erosion caused by storms and flood waters can silt up streams so that development of water resources is impeded.

 http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/servlet/onepetropreview?id=00001424

  -----------------------------------------------------------

Texas beaches tank in quality

 June 26, 2013

 http://www.chron.com/news/houston-texas/houston/article/Texas-beaches-tank-in-quality-4623225.php

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Water pollution a problem for Southern beaches

* While the region with the highest violation rate of beachwater standards was the Great Lakes at 10 percent, it was followed by the Gulf Coast at 8 percent.

* Among states with oceanfront beaches, South Carolina tied Maine for the state with the highest percentage of beachwater samples exceeding the national standard, at 11 percent. They were followed by Texas at 9 percent.


http://www.southernstudies.org/2013/07/water-pollution-a-problem-for-southern-beaches.html

 

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231 Beach Pollution Advisories in Texas in 2009

 http://www.environmenttexas.org/news/txe/231-beach-pollution-advisories-texas-2009

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Dead Zone Off Texas Coast Existed Since 1985

 Apr. 4, 2008

 Steve DiMarco, associate professor in Texas A&M's College of Geosciences who has studied dead zones in the Gulf of Mexico for more than 15 years, believes the dead zone area off the Texas coast extends from the Texas-Louisiana border area to Brownsville. A dead zone occurs when there is hypoxia, or oxygen-depleted water.

Such low levels of oxygen are believed to be caused by pollution from farm fertilizers as they empty into rivers and eventually the Gulf, or by soil erosion or discharge from sewage treatment plants.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/04/080401172339.htm

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Photo Gallery: Polluted Oceans

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National Briefing | Southwest: Texas: Accord On DDT Pollution

 The Port of Houston reached a $100 million settlement in a three-year-old suit regarding environmental damage by a pesticide manufacturer. The agreement calls for the present and former owners of GB Biosciences, which made DDT, to buy 112 acres of contaminated land, remove a half-million cubic yards of sediment and create an indemnity fund against future pollution. 

 http://www.nytimes.com/2004/01/08/us/national-briefing-southwest-texas-accord-on-ddt-pollution.html


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Long-Lived Pollutants in Sediments from the Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge, Texas


DDT and some heavy metals are long-lived pollutants which may be retained in sedimentary layers and may be relocated by post-depositional biological or mechanical processes. Because DDT has a half life of up to 17 yr and it is concentrated in higher ecological levels, even a few parts per billion in the sedimentary substrate can be harmful to wildlife. The potential danger and the persistence of many long-lived pollutants create a genuine need for environmental studies made by geologists.

 

http://gsabulletin.gsapubs.org/content/84/8/2511.abstract

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 DDT and Birds

 The reduced bird populations started to recover quickly thereafter, with species as different as ospreys and robins returning to the pre-DDT levels of breeding success in a decade or less. Furthermore, attempts to reestablish the peregrine in the eastern United States using captive-reared birds show considerable signs of success. Brown Pelican populations have now recovered to the extent that the species no longer warrants endangered status except in California. The banning of DDT has helped to create other pesticide problems, however. The newer organophosphate pesticides that to a degree have replaced organochlorines, such as parathion and TEPP (tetraethyl pyrophosphate), are less persistent so they do not accumulate in food chains. They are, nonetheless, highly toxic. Parathion applied to winter wheat, for instance, killed some 1,600 waterfowl, mostly Canada Geese, in the Texas panhandle in 1981.

http://www.stanford.edu/group/stanfordbirds/text/essays/DDT_and_Birds.html

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The DDT profile of some south Texas coastal-zone sediments: A study of the mechanisms of pollution dispersal and accumulation in nature

 http://repositories.tdl.org/tamug-ir/handle/1969.3/21682

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Health Advisories for Texas Beaches Increase Threefold in 2010


Environment Texas Calls for Better Protections
 http://www.environmenttexas.org/news/txe/health-advisories-texas-beaches-increase-threefold-2010

 

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Groundwater Contamination Higher Near North Texas Gas Wells

 

Sabine Lake and contiguous Texas waters in Jefferson and Orange counties
Chemical of Concern:
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
  • For gafftopsail catfish, adults should limit consumption to no more than three 8-ounce meals per month.
  • Children under 12 and women who are pregnant, nursing or may become pregnant should limit consumption to no more than one 4-ounce meal per month



Houston/Galveston Area


Clear Creek in Brazoria, Fort Bend, Galveston and Harris counties
Chemical of Concern:
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
  • Persons should not consume any species of fish from these waters.
Houston Ship Channel and all contiguous waters north of the Fred Hartman Bridge, State Highway 146 including the San Jacinto River below the Lake Houston dam
Chemicals of Concern:
Dioxins, Organochlorine pesticides, Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
  • For all species of fish and blue crabs, adults should limit consumption to no more than one, 8-ounce meal per month.
  • Women of childbearing age and children under 12 should not consume any fish or blue crabs from this area.
Upper Galveston Bay and all contiguous waters north of a line drawn from Red Bluff Point to Five-Mile Cut Marker to Houston Point
Chemicals of Concern:
Dioxins and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
  • For all species of catfish, spotted seatrout and blue crab, adults should limit consumption to no more than one, 8-ounce meal per month.
  • Children under 12 and women of childbearing age should not consume spotted seatrout, blue crabs or any catfish species from this area.
Galveston Bay and all contiguous waters including Chocolate Bay, East Bay, Trinity Bay and West Bay
Chemicals of Concern:
Dioxins and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
  • For all species of catfish, adults should limit consumption to no more than one, 8-ounce meal per month.
  • Children, and women who are nursing, pregnant or who may become pregnant should not consume catfish from these waters.





Gulf of Mexico

REVISED: All Texas Coastal Waters
Chemical of Concern:
Mercury
  • Blue marlin of any length should not be consumed.
  • For blackfin tuna, little tunny, crevalle jack, swordfish, wahoo and all species of sharks:
    • Adult men and women who are past childbearing age should limit consumption to two, 8-ounce meals per month.
    • Children under 12 and women of childbearing age should not consume these species.
  • For king mackerel:
    • For specimens less than 35 inches in total length, adult men and women who are past childbearing age should limit consumption to one 8-ounce meal per week.
    • For fish more than 35 inches, adult men and women past childbearing age should limit consumption to two, 8-ounce meals per month.
    • Children under 12 and women of childbearing age should not consume any king mackerel from Texas coastal waters.
Flower Garden Banks





Freshwater Consumption Advisories

TDSHS recommends limiting consumption of certain fish in these areas as indicated below. For area maps and details on these advisories, see the TDSHS Listing of Waterbodies with Advisories.

South Texas

Lower Leon Creek in San Antonio, Bexar County
Chemical of Concern:
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
  • Persons should not consume any species of fish from Leon Creek starting at the Old US 90 bridge downstream to the Loop 410 bridge.

Valley (Harlingen/McAllen Area)

Arroyo Colorado, Llano Grande Lake and the Main Floodway upstream of the Port of Harlingen in Cameron and Hidalgo counties
Chemicals of Concern:
Mercury, DDE and PCBs
  • Persons should not consume longnose gar and smallmouth buffalo from these waters



Freshwater Consumption Advisories

TDSHS recommends limiting consumption of certain fish in these areas as indicated below. For area maps and details on these advisories, see the TDSHS Listing of Waterbodies with Advisories.

South Texas

Lower Leon Creek in San Antonio, Bexar County
Chemical of Concern:
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
  • Persons should not consume any species of fish from Leon Creek starting at the Old US 90 bridge downstream to the Loop 410 bridge.

Valley (Harlingen/McAllen Area)

Arroyo Colorado, Llano Grande Lake and the Main Floodway upstream of the Port of Harlingen in Cameron and Hidalgo counties
Chemicals of Concern:
Mercury, DDE and PCBs
  • Persons should not consume longnose gar and smallmouth buffalo from these waters

Central Texas

Canyon Lake in Comal County
Chemical of Concern:
Mercury
  • For striped bass and longnose gar, adults and children 12 and older are advised to eat no more than two 8-ounce servings per month. Children under 12 should eat no more than two 4-ounce servings per month.
  • Pregnant women, women who could become pregnant and mothers who are breastfeeding are advised not to eat any striped bass or longnose gar from the lake.

Northeast/Southeast Texas

Neches River and all contiguous waters in Angelina, Hardin, Houston, Jasper, Polk, Trinity and Tyler counties
Chemical of Concern:
Mercury
  • For flathead catfish, freshwater drum, gar, largemouth bass, spotted bass and white bass, adults should limit consumption to no more than two 8-ounce servings per month. Children under 12 years old should limit their consumption of these same fish to no more than two 4-ounce servings per month.
  • Women who are nursing, pregnant or who may become pregnant should not consume the indicated species from this stretch of the Neches River.
Lake Madisonville in Madison County
Chemical of Concern:
Mercury
  • For largemouth bass, adults should limit consumption to no more than two, 8-ounce servings per month, and children under 12 years old should limit consumption to no more than two, 4-ounce servings per month.
  • Women who are nursing, pregnant or who may become pregnant should not consume largemouth bass from this lake.
Clear Lake in Panola County
Chemical of Concern:
Mercury
  • For largemouth bass, freshwater drum and bowfin, adults should limit consumption to no more than two, 8-ounce meals per month, and children under 12 years of age should limit consumption to no more than two, 4-ounce meals per month.
  • Women of childbearing age who are or might become pregnant, or who are nursing should not consume largemouth bass, freshwater drum or bowfin from this lake.
Hills Lake in Panola County
Chemical of Concern:
Mercury
  • For largemouth bass and freshwater drum, adults should limit consumption to no more than two, 8-ounce meals per month, and children under 12 years of age should limit consumption to no more than two, 4-ounce meals per month.
  • Women of childbearing age who are or might become pregnant, or who are nursing should not consume largemouth bass or freshwater drum from this lake.
B.A. Steinhagen Lake in Jasper and Tyler counties; Big Cypress Creek in Marion County; Caddo Lake in Harrison and Marion counties; Sam Rayburn Reservoir in Angelina, Jasper, Nacogdoches, Sabine and San Augustine counties; and Toledo Bend Reservoir in Newton, Panola, Sabine and Shelby counties
Chemical of Concern:
Mercury
  • All Locations: For largemouth bass and freshwater drum, adults should limit consumption to no more than two, 8-ounce meals per month, and children should limit consumption to no more than two, 4-ounce meals per month.
  • For B.A. Steinhagen Reservoir: For white bass or hybrid striped bass, adults should limit consumption to no more than one, 8-ounce meal per month, and children should limit consumption to no more than one, 4-ounce meal per month.
Village Creek in Hardin County
Chemical of Concern:
Mercury
  • For crappie, gar and largemouth bass, adults should limit consumption to no more than two eight ounce meals per month.
  • Children under twelve years old should limit consumption of crappie, gar and largemouth bass to no more than two four ounce meals per month.
  • Women who are nursing, pregnant or who may become pregnant should not consume crappie, gar and largemouth bass from Village Creek.
Lake Kimball in Hardin and Tyler counties and Lake Pruitt (Black Cypress Creek) in Cass County
Chemical of Concern:
Mercury
  • For all species of fish, adults should limit consumption to no more than two, 8-ounce meals per month, and children under 12 years of age should limit consumption to no more than two, 4-ounce meals per month.
Lone Star Lake (aka Ellison Creek Reservoir) in Morris County
Chemicals of Concern:
PCBs
  • Persons should not consume any species of fish from this reservoir.
Lake Daingerfield in Morris County and Lake Ratcliff in Houston County
Chemical of Concern:
Mercury
  • For largemouth bass, adults should limit consumption to no more than two, 8-ounce meals per month, and children should limit consumption to no more than two, 4-ounce meals per month.

Panhandle

Lake Alan Henry in Garza and Kent counties
Chemical of Concern:
Mercury
  • For blue catfish, flathead catfish, crappie, largemouth bass and spotted bass, adults should limit consumption to no more than two, 8-ounce meals per month.
  • Children under 12 and women who are pregnant or nursing should not consume any fish of those species.
Lake Meredith in Hutchinson, Moore and Potter counties
Chemical of Concern:
Mercury
  • For walleye, adults should limit consumption to no more than two, 8-ounce meals per month, and children should limit consumption to no more than two, 4-ounce meals per month.

Dallas/Fort Worth Area

Mountain Creek Lake in Dallas County
Chemicals of Concern:
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins
  • Persons should not consume any species of fish from these waters.
Lake Worth in Tarrant County
Chemicals of Concern:
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), aldrin, dieldrin
  • Persons should not consume blue catfish, channel catfish or smallmouth buffalo from these waters.
  • This replaces a previous advisory issued in 2000. See details.
Fosdic Lake in Tarrant County
Chemicals of Concern:
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
  • For common carp, adults and children 12 and older should eat no more than two 8-ounce servings per month.
  • Children under 12 should eat no more than two 4-ounce servings per month.
  • Women who are or might become pregnant and women who are nursing should not eat any common carp from the lake.
Clear Fork of Trinity River from Benbrook Reservoir dam and West Fork from Lake Worth dam, including main stem of the Trinity downstream to US 287 bridge. Portions of Anderson, Dallas, Ellis, Freestone, Henderson, Kaufman, Navarro and Tarrant counties.
Chemicals of Concern:
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Dioxins
  • Persons should not consume any species of fish from these waters.

 http://www.texasobserver.org/groundwater-contamination-higher-near-north-texas-gas-fracking-wells/

 

 

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McKinney Falls State Park

 The park was a popular spot for swimming from the day it opened. In April 1981, swimming in the park was banned when several elementary school children complained of cramps and nausea after swimming in Onion Creek. Testing indicated the fecal coliform count in the water was 2600 per 100 milliliters of water, well above the 200 count maximum deemed safe for swimming.

The problem was blamed on rain water runoff from the mostly urban area located upstream on Onion and Williamson Creeks. The run off dumped animal waste, oils, dirt and debris into the creeks. Another contributor was the Williamson Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant. The plant would occasionally dump effluent in various stages of treatment into Williamson Creek if there was equipment failure. By 1982, the plant was overloaded by the rapid growth of the city and regularly discharged effluent into the creek, not all of which met state standards for discharge.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McKinney_Falls_State_Park

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Guadalupe River Basin: Assessment

 http://www.tceq.texas.gov/waterquality/assessment/02twqi/basins/guadalupe.html

 

 ---------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

 

Underwater Litter Video day after Mem Day 2011 - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pgbIs1mp22U 

 

---------------------------------------------------

Texas Bottle Bill - The Problem of Plastics - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F8_zS2IHJrk

  ---------------------------------------------

If most of the plastic you see today was made from plant material, instead of  fossil fuel and petrochemical plastic that does not biodegrade properly. We might not be having a discussion of the amount of pollution caused by micro-plastics in our oceans and waterways. 

----------------------------------------------

 

WHAT?!?! New Braunfels May Bans Beer Cans on the River

http://blogs.houstonpress.com/hairballs/2011/08/new_braunfels_beer_ban.php

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Published Literature on the San Marcos System

 http://smwatershedinitiative.org/reports/

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Austinite, world class diver takes on plastic pollution 

 November 15, 2013

 http://www.khou.com/news/texas-news/Austinite-world-class-diver-takes-on-plastic-pollution-232079091.html

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Trashing Texas – Is any place worse than the Comal River? Let’s have a contest to see!

 http://blog.chron.com/sportsupdate/2011/08/trashing-texas-is-any-place-worse-than-the-comal-river-lets-have-a-contest-to-see/

--------------------------------------------

 Friends of Lake McQueeney

Improved Phosphorus Standard Included In New Draft Permits (6/2010)

 

Thanks to efforts over the years to persuade New Braunfels Utility, NBU, to improve the treatment of their effluent, and a change in their position, TCEQ has established more stringent standards for the Sewage Treatment Plants.

http://www.lakemcqueeney.org/generic18.html


----------------------------------------------------------------------

 An Analysis of Texas Waterways

 A Report on the Physical Characteristics of Rivers, Streams, and Bayous in Texas

Trinity River
State Highway 7 to State Highway 21
33 miles

Forming the boundary between Leon, Houston, and Madison Counties, this 33-mile section of the Trinity River offers scenic qualities, among which are its heavily vegetated banks. Here, the river meanders slowly between steep, muddy banks which create extremely difficult access form the road crossing. There are only two roads which cross the river so that this section remains isolated from the recreational use. Several large creeks feed the river. For the recreationist's benefit, plenty of sand bars which can often be utilized for camping and day use are present; and water levels on this section of the Trinity are normally sufficient for recreational use. It must be noted that the water quality is poor, because of extensive pollution upstream. This is perhaps the most severely limiting factor affecting recreational use of this section of the Trinity. Waterway features and distance between each are as follows:

http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/publications/pwdpubs/pwd_rp_t3200_1047/10_e_tx_trinity.phtml


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Underground Pollution at LCRA Site to be Managed with Deed Restrictions

Monday, April 23rd, 2012

(New Braunfels, TX) -- The Lower Colorado River Authority, or LCRA, is possibly getting ready to sell the property it owns at the entrance to Landa Park, where an old hydroelectric plant is located.

That site has been used for industrial purposes since the 1840’s, and in the early 1900’s, after it became a hydroelectric plant, several different types of fuel were used, including coal and diesel fuel. Fast forward to 2012, and tests done by LCRA showed that remnants of those fuels remain in the ground surrounding that property, including the city-owned land along the Comal River (and the property that is leased from the city by the Wurstfest Association).


http://kgnb.am/news/underground-pollution-lcra-site-be-managed-deed-restrictions

 

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Lee Leffingwell says treated wastewater put into Colorado River is of higher quality than Lake Austin


Austin get its water from the Colorado River and puts its treated wastewater into the river, Mayor Lee Leffingwell reminded colleagues at a Dec. 13, 2012, Austin City Council meeting.


http://www.politifact.com/texas/statements/2013/jan/21/lee-leffingwell/lee-leffingwell-says-treated-wastewater-put-colora/

 

-----------------------------------------------------

 

Evaluation of Ground-Water Quality in Texas Counties Bordering the Rio Grande

 

 http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/publications/reports/limited_printing/doc/LP214/LP-214.pdf

----------------------------------------------------------- 

 

 

Texas Water Pollution - Lake Amistad

Lake Amistad Guide

11-11-2004

 Our supply of drinking water in Texas is under a serious threat of contamination by pollution from our cities and rural areas. Farmers use chemicals on their farmland that run off into nearby rivers and lakes and eventually contaminate drinking water.

Environmentalist Dr. Richard Walker elucidates the problem: "Toxic waste from industry, sewage from human settlements and excess fertilizers from agriculture are polluting rivers and lakes and poisoning water supplies; more worryingly, pollutants are seeping down into aquifers causing long-term and possibly irreversible damage to the water supplies of future generations."

Pesticides, sewage, toxic waste, industrial gases, heat pollution, radioactive waste, oil seepage from refineries, oil spills and acid rain are all pollution threats to Texas' rivers and lakes. The pollution created by chemical runoff from farm land accounts for 64% of pollution in the state's fresh water supplies. These chemicals contain nitrates that have been blamed for several adult cancers and blood poisoning in babies. It can also cause eutrophication, the creation of an environment that is More suitable to plant than animal life. Raw sewage contaminating the water supply can reduce the oxygen level sufficiently to cause extinction of most forms of life. Not only does it destroy life, but it can get into the food chain threatening larger animals including man.

 

 http://www.ar-guide.com/news/blog.php?BlogID=217

 

---------------------------------------------------- 

Toxic Texas

http://toxictexas.org/


14 Toxic Hotspots Across Texas
County City Toxics of Concern
Bastrop Bastrop hydrogen sulfide
Bowie Cass hydrogen sulfide
Brazoria Freeport arsenic, cobalt, nickel & vanadium
Dallas Dallas nickel
El Paso El Paso hydrogen sulfide
Galveston Texas City acrolein, butyraldehyde, propionaldehyde, valeraldehyde, benzene & hydrogen sulfide
Harris Lynchburg Ferry benzene & styrene

Galena Park benzene

Houston 1,3-butadiene
Jasper Evadale hydrogen sulfide
Jefferson Beaumont hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide & benzene

Port Arthur benzene

Port Neches 1,3-butadiene
Nueces Corpus Christi benzene


-------------------------------------------------------



Texas fracking verdict puts industry on notice about toxic air emissions

A nearly $3 million jury verdict against a Texas oil and gas company highlights regulatory failures and health risks linked to fracking

 


Between February 2010 and July 2011, Lisa and Bob Parr filed 13 complaints about air pollution from gas and oil operations near their ranch in Wise County, Texas. Sometimes they had trouble breathing, they told the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). They also experienced nausea, nosebleeds, ringing ears and rashes.

Other families were also alarmed. Between 2008 and 2011, the TCEQ received 77 complaints from Wise County, in the Barnett Shale drilling area in North Texas. One said the odor was so powerful that the complainant “couldn’t go outside,” according to the TCEQ report.

Frustrated and angry, the Parrs decided to sue. Their attorney warned them that lawsuits against the oil and gas industry rarely, if ever, succeed. But the Parrs persisted and last month won what appears to be the first successful U.S. lawsuit alleging that toxic air emissions from oil and gas production sickened people living nearby. A Dallas County jury found that Aruba Petroleum, a privately owned company based in Plano, Texas, “intentionally created a private nuisance” that affected the family's health and awarded the Parrs almost $3 million in damages.


http://www.publicintegrity.org/2014/05/28/14812/texas-fracking-verdict-puts-industry-notice-about-toxic-air-emissions

------------------------------------------------------

 

Waco wetland research site will target drug pollution

 Human pharmaceuticals that end up in waterways can do weird things to fish, altering the way they eat, act and reproduce. Now a major scientific study in Waco is about to test how to get the drugs out of the water the natural way, through wetlands.

The U.S. Geological Service and Bureau of Reclamation have chosen to work with Baylor University and the city of Waco to build a 12-acre wetlands at the regional sewer treatment plant to serve as an outdoor ?laboratory. ****

The five-year, $1.5 million project will study how aquatic plants and ?microorganisms can take up and break down substances such as artificial hormones, antibiotics and prescription drugs. Scientists will run treated effluent from the Waco Metropolitan Area Regional Sewer System through the self-contained wetlands, adding small amounts of pharmaceuticals to see how they break down.


http://www.wacotrib.com/news/higher_education/waco-wetland-research-site-will-target-drug-pollution/article_5b78c239-915c-594b-9613-e4c44e89049a.html?mode=jqm

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ANTHROPOGENIC GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION IN TEXAS AQUIFERS VOLUME I

 

 

https://www.twdb.state.tx.us/publications/reports/contracted_reports/doc/1004831126_gwcontamination.pdf

 

Chapter 5.2
Raw
Water
Chemistry
Data
Survey
_____________________________________________
Chapter 69
5.2.1
Laboratory
Detection
Limits
________________________________________________________
Chapter 71
5.2.2
Protective
Concentration
Levels
(PCLs)
________________________________________________
Chapter 71
5.2.3
Hydrocarbons
and
Fuel
Constituents
_________________________________________________
Chapter 72
5.2.3.1
Benzene
_______________________________________________________________________
Chapter 73
5.2.3.2
Toluene
_______________________________________________________________________
Chapter 74
5.2.3.3
Ethylbenzene
__________________________________________________________________
Chapter 74
5.2.3.4
Xylenes
_______________________________________________________________________
Chapter 75
5.2.3.5
MTBE
_________________________________________________________________________
Chapter 75
5.2.4
Chlorinated
Compounds
___________________________________________________________
Chapter 76
5.2.4.1
PCE
__________________________________________________________________________
Chapter 76
5.2.4.2
TCE
__________________________________________________________________________
Chapter 77
5.2.4.3
Vinyl
Chloride
__________________________________________________________________
Chapter 77
5.2.4.4
Cis
1,2
DCE
____________________________________________________________________
Chapter 78
5.2.4.5
1,1,1
TCA
_____________________________________________________________________
Chapter 78
5.2.4.6
Chloroform
____________________________________________________________________
Chapter 79
5.2.4.7
Carbon
Tetrachloride
____________________________________________________________

 Chapter 5
5.2.5
Herbicide
and
Pesticide
Compounds
__________________________________________________
Chapter 80
5.2.5.1
Atrazine
_______________________________________________________________________
Chapter 80
5.2.5.2
Atrazine
Metabolites
____________________________________________________________
Chapter 81
5.2.5.3
Simazine
______________________________________________________________________
Chapter 81
5.2.5.4
Prometon
_____________________________________________________________________
Chapter 82
5.2.5.5
Diazinon
______________________________________________________________________
Chapter 82
5.2.5.6
2
4D
_________________________________________________________________________
Chapter 83
5.2.5.7
Metolachlor
___________________________________________________________________
Chapter 83
5.2.5.8
Tebuthiuron
___________________________________________________________________
Chapter 83
5.2.5.9
Carbaryl
______________________________________________________________________
Chapter 84
5.2.5.10
Alachlor
______________________________________________________________________
Chapter 84
5.2.5.11
Diuron
_______________________________________________________________________
Chapter 85
5.2.5.12
Dieldrin
______________________________________________________________________
Chapter 85
5.2.5.13
Chlorpyrifos
__________________________________________________________________
Chapter 86
5.2.5.14
Cyanizine
_____________________________________________________________________
Chapter 86
5.2.5.15
Lindane
______________________________________________________________________
Chapter 87
5.2.5.16
Acetochlor
___________________________________________________________________
Chapter 87
5.2.5.17
Aldicarb
______________________________________________________________________
Chapter 87
5.2.5.18
Chlorothalonil
_________________________________________________________________
Chapter 88
5.2.5.19
Dinoseb
______________________________________________________________________
Chapter 88
5.2.6
Agricultural
Nutrients
_____________________________________________________________
Chapter 88
5.2.6.1
Nitrates
_______________________________________________________________________
Chapter 88
5.2.7
Semi
volatile
Organic
Compounds
___________________________________________________
Chapter 90
5.3
Groundwater
Contaminant
Trends
Over
Time
____________________________________
Chapter 90
5.3.1
Atrazine
________________________________________________________________________
Chapter 90
5.3.2
Simazine
________________________________________________________________________
Chapter 91
5.3.3
Chlorinated
Compounds
___________________________________________________________
Chapter 91
5.3.4
Chloroform
______________________________________________________________________
Chapter 91
5.3.5
Nitrates
________________________________________________________________________
Chapter 92
Volume
Estimates
and
Treatment
Cost
Data
__________________________________
Chapter 93
6.1
Delineation
of
Lateral
Extent
of
Contaminated
Groundwater
_______________________
Chapter 94
6.1.1
Hydrocarbons
and
Fuel
Constituents
_________________________________________________
Chapter 94
6.1.2
Chlorinated
Compounds
and
Agricultural
Chemicals
_____________________________________
Chapter 94
6.1.3
Nitrates
as
Nitrogen
Delineated
Areas
________________________________________________
Chapter 96
6.2
Estimation
of
Vertical
Depth
of
Contamination
___________________________________
Chapter 96
6.3
Volume
Calculations
_______________________________________________________
Chapter 101
6.4
Treatment
Options
and
Cost
Information
______________________________________
Chapter 103
Discussion
and
Conclusions
_______________________________________________
Chapter 108
7.1
Potential
Sources
of
Contamination
___________________________________________
Chapter 108
7.2
Documented
Records
of
Source
Groundwater
Contamination
______________________
Chapter 109
7.3
Comparisons
with
other
studies
______________________________________________
Chapter 110
7.3.1
USGS
NAWQA
Study
_____________________________________________________________
Chapter 110
7.3.2
EAA
Study
______________________________________________________________________
Chapter 113
7.4
Conclusions
_______________________________________________________________
Chapter 113
References
____________________________________________________________



  --------------------------------------------------------------------

Cyanide in Texas

 http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/whatsinyourwater/1024/TX/Texas/Cyanide/



Cyanide is a chemical used in mining and steel/metal, plastic, and pesticide manufacturing; it is applied to roads as road salts, and small quantities occur naturally in some plants. 


The Most Polluted Communities in Texas

4 water utilities reported detecting Cyanide in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies Ranked by highest average Cyanide level
    


#1       Hill Country Ranch EstatesKerrville, TX    -   44 ppb


#2    EL Paso County Tornillo Water Imprvement District Tornillo, TX  -  20 ppb 

#3    Cassie Water System Buchanan Dam, TX   -    10 ppb


#4    North Point Subdivision San Antonio, TX   -   10 ppb

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 URGENT: 1285 POUNDS PER DAY OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE leaking in Texas

November 29, 2012

 
http://www.texassharon.com/2012/11/29/urgent-285-pounds-per-day-of-hydrogen-cyanide-leaking-in-texas/

 

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 TERRORISM AND OTHER CYANIDE INCIDENCES




MAY 17 2002, Texas, USA: The hijacking of ten tons of deadly cyanide en route to a mine shows the risks of trucking huge amounts of cyanide through Wisconsin to the headwaters of the Wolf River. The hijacking took place some 500 miles south of Brownsville, Texas.

When the truck was found there were unconfirmed reports that some of the cyanide was missing.

http://www.rainforestinfo.org.au/gold/spills.htm

 

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Heavy Metal

 

http://www.texasobserver.org/heavy-metal/


The ‘long, sordid history' of Texas’ most brazen polluter.

On October 20, 2010, two investigators with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality climbed a smokestack at the Gulf Chemical & Metallurgical Corp. plant in Freeport. The plant takes spent catalysts from oil refineries across the globe and recovers valuable metals from them. For years, state regulators at the TCEQ’s regional office had tried to figure out how much pollution the facility was emitting. Neighbors had often complained that Gulf Chemical spewed dangerous heavy metals into the water and air. The company had long failed to conduct accurate testing, and the October 2010 stack test had been repeatedly delayed. Just a few months earlier, in June, the company had pleaded guilty to 11 felony counts of illegally discharging toxic wastewater into the Old Brazos River and paid a $2.75 million fine. Surely the company, chastened by a rare criminal prosecution for pollution, would now be on its best behavior.

Not exactly.

As the TCEQ employees, wearing flimsy $8 dust masks, climbed the stack, they suddenly smelled an odor like a firecracker had just exploded. Soon, a molten material—the company would later call it “magma”—erupted from the stack and began raining down on them.

The TCEQ employees hustled off the stack to safety, but two contractors working on the test weren’t so lucky. Company officials made no effort to bring them down, and one contractor was burned by the magma, according to internal company emails and state records obtained by the Observer.

The TCEQ investigators later learned they had been exposed to extremely high levels of ammonia and sulfur dioxide—in the case of the sulfur dioxide, the levels were 16 to 20 times higher than those considered immediately hazardous to life and health, according to state records. One of the inspectors later emailed the company to say that two days after the incident a doctor had found bleeding and yellow crust in his nose.

 

-------------------------------------


History of Trace Metal Pollution in Sabine-Neches Estuary, Beaumont, Texas

 

 Sabine-Neches Estuary, near Beaumont,TX, receives
wastewater effluents from over 160 industrial and
municipal treatment plants. The concentrations of trace
metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn), AI, Fe, Mn, and
organic carbon were determined in four dated
sediment cores. A reliable geochronology and
reconstruction of the history of trace metal inputs of
these sediments was possible because the 239,240Pu
profiles closely trace the bomb fallout history into the
environment. Down-core variations of aluminumnormalized
enrichment factors for these metals demonstrate
that the sediments of this estuary have
remained relatively 'pristine' with respect to trace
metal contamination since 1860. While the concentrations
of Pb and Zn at various depths in the sediment
column are slightly enriched, Co, Cr, Cu, and Ni are
depleted. The sedimentary and biogenic particles
that are presently being deposited are also depleted
in trace metals. Lack of strong enrichment for trace
metals like Cu can be attributed to the short residence
time of water, low salinity conditions, and possibly
strong complexation of these metals with organic matter.

 

 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es00006a010

-------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Health Implications of Mercury (Hg) in East Texas Lakes
 http://www.swcpeh.org/files/pdf/swcpeh_health-implications-mercury-et-lakes.pdf


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Five of the Worst Mercury-Polluting Power Plants Are In Texas

 January 4, 2013

 http://www.texasmonthly.com/story/five-worst-mercury-polluting-power-plants-are-texas

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Texas is Number One State for Mercury Pollution: Houston We've Got a Problem!

 

 http://www.momscleanairforce.org/2011/07/28/texas-is-number-one-state-for-mercury-pollution-houston-weve-got-a-problem/

 

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Cementing a toxic legacy? How the EPA has failed to control mercury pollution from cement kilns

 

The largest concentration of cement manufacturing in the entire country
is just outside of the Dallas/Fort Worth metroplex in Midlothian, Texas.
Citizens of Midlothian are burdened by five plants operated by Holcim,
Ashgrove, and Texas Industries, all within a 6.5-mile radius of each other.
Combined, these plants may emit just under 200 pounds of mercury on an
annual basis, and thousands of tons of other dangerous toxic air pollutants.

http://earthjustice.org/sites/default/files/library/reports/ej_eip_kilns_web.pdf

-----------------------------------------

Mercury Pollution In Northeast Texas   --  

http://www.sulphurriver.net/mercury.html

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LCRA and Austin named one of top 50 mercury emitters in U.S.

 November 16, 2011

 http://www.hillcountrynews.com/news/article_d611781a-1079-11e1-9a4f-001cc4c03286.html?mode=print

 

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American urban lake pollution traced to parking lot seal coat


Read more here: http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2010/12/05/104742/american-urban-lake-pollution.html#storylink=cpy

Van Metre said a lucky break of discovery came about eight years ago in Austin, Tex., when tests of sediment in drainage ditches showed stunningly high levels of PAHs.


Read more here: http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2010/12/05/104742/american-urban-lake-pollution.html#storylink=cpy

Hillstrand Pond in Anchorage and Sweetwater Reservoir in San Diego were among the bodies of water that tested low in total PAHs. Higher levels ranged from 7.3 parts per million in Westchester Lagoon in Anchorage and 14 ppm in Fosdic Lake in Fort Worth, Texas, to cities with some of the highest readings — 53 ppm in Lake Killarney in Orlando, Fla.; 79 ppm in Upper Mystic Lake outside Boston, 80.6 ppm in Newbridge Pond outside New York.


http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2010/12/05/104742/american-urban-lake-pollution.html#storylink=cpy


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Austin Jiffy Lubes Too Cheap To Dispose Of Oil Properly, Keep Dumping It In City Sewer System

 Heartland Automotive Services, Inc., which runs 31 Jiffy Lubes in the Austin area, has to pay a $300,000 fine after admitting to pumping used oil into the city’s sewer system instead of recycling it. Normally shops are paid by the gallon for used oil, but in this case a damaged wall let water seep into the oil collection area and create a toxic mess that couldn’t be sold—so instead of paying to remove it, they pumped it down the drain.

 

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 With much of the pollution going on around Texas. Many still debate, on what we should do, with golden algae blooms spreading, in the state of Texas.


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Toxic Golden Algae in Texas

 

  January 2002

 

https://tpwd.texas.gov/landwater/water/environconcerns/hab/media/report.pdf

 

      Toxic Golden Algae in Texas: An Overview problem: 
  Toxic golden algal blooms have killed over 12 million fish in Texas since     
  1985,   resulting in the loss of millions of dollars worth of dead fish, lost 
   revenue to local economies, and lost time and resources involved in responses to the fish kills. Blooms are projected to continue and to expand into other river basins in Texas. At the request of Representative Keffer, the Harmful Algal 
    Bloom Workgroup created this report to detail potential actions needed to understand how golden algal populations grow and become toxic, and how they
can be managed in our lakes, rivers, and fish culture facilities. Problems caused 
by golden algae are not likely to be easily or quickly solved. Controls, particularly in lakes and rivers, may involve large-scale changes in nutrients and salt concentrations in the impacted watersheds.
Description: 
The golden alga is a microscopic, free-floating, yellow-green algae. Algae are plants that are usually aquatic and lack true stems, roots, and leaves. The golden alga, whose scientific name is Prymnesium parvum (“perm-knee-z-umparvum”), lives in brackish water. Large concentrations of the golden alga (an algal bloom) color the water yellow to coppery-brown and may release the toxin
   prymnesin. Little is known about the cause of the blooms and toxin production. 
    The toxin disrupts the functioning of the gills in fish and clams, killing them
after extended exposure. Previous toxic blooms in Texas have killed hundreds of thousands of fish at a time, although aquatic insects, birds and mammals have not been impacted. The Texas Department of Health has stated that the golden alga is not known to harm humans; however, people should not collect dead or dying fish to eat.
    Historical Exposure: 
This toxic alga has killed fish on five continents. Evidence suggests that the golden alga probably caused fish kills in Texas as early as the 1960s, but it was first confirmed in Texas during a 1985 fish kill on the Pecos River. Since 1985 the range and impact of this organism has increased to include portions of the Brazos River, the Colorado River, and the Red River basins.

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----

Chapter 4: Texas Air pollution

----

----------------------------------------

---------------------------------------

 

 

Bush's quiet little war
on the Texas environment:
Assault on the regulatory front

 

Results of Gov. Bush's Pollution Policy
By 1999, high school athletes in Deer Park, Texas, a suburb of Houston, became sick from breathing the polluted air traced back to large industries in the area. During the summer, air pollution monitors recorded the highest ozone pollution levels in the country, and Texas passed California as the state with the nations worst ozone pollution.


Fourth Step: Undermine Inspections
On September 1, 1995, Governor Bush announced that farmer and rancher John Baker would be his final appointee to the three-member TNRCC board. With the board now complete, the commission quickly supported reversing a 23-year old policy on conducting inspections without prior notification.
Texas has an estimated 1,585 industrial facilities that are ranked as a major sources of air pollution. Additionally, there are 75 minor sources subject to annual inspection. Field investigators working in the 16 regional offices perform the once-per-year routine inspections as required by agreement with the EPA. For approximately twenty-three years, surprise annual inspections were carried out at Texas' industrial plants without first informing plant officials.
But on Sept 11, 1995, only ten days after the third and final Bush appointee was announced, John Young, the acting division director for Field Operations, issued a memorandum changing surprise annual inspections to mandatory announced site visits with as much a two weeks notice for all TNRCC programs. This includes yearly compliance reviews and visible emissions observations of the plant on the day of the visit.

The memo stated, "Effective the date of this IOM (inter-office memorandum) it will be the policy of Field Operations Division to provide notification to facilities of our intent to conduct a compliance inspection prior to all-routine inspections. Ideally this notification should occur one to two weeks prior the inspection date."


 http://www.txpeer.org/Bush/Quiet_Little_War.html

 

----------------------------------------

 

Most Polluted Cities


By Ozone

#7: Houston-Baytown-Huntsville, TX


#8: Dallas-Fort Worth, TX


#20: Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX

http://www.stateoftheair.org/2013/city-rankings/most-polluted-cities.html

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Half of Americans still affected
by dangerous pollution levels

A report by the American Lung Association

The most polluted US cities
(By particle pollution)

 17 Houston, TX

 http://www.citymayors.com/environment/polluted_uscities.html

 

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America's Dirtiest Cities

No. 7 Dallas/Fort Worth


According to data, the Dallas area may have less of an ozone problem than Houston, but it still leapfrogged over its fellow Texas city and into the Dirtiest 10 this year. Perhaps voters didn’t find enough green space: the cities ranked last for their public parks.


http://www.travelandleisure.com/articles/americas-dirtiest-cities/8

 

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Texas Power Plants Number 1 for Smog-Forming Pollution

 http://www.environmenttexas.org/news/txe/texas-power-plants-number-1-smog-forming-pollution

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Texas releases most mercury to air
State also No. 1 in emissions of chemicals from manufacturing

 

 http://www.seedcoalition.org/pc_dmn_052402.htm

 

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A toxic life: Texas has the 10th-worst air pollution in the country

 http://houston.culturemap.com/news/city_life/08-11-12-00-15-a-toxic-life-texas-has-the-10th-worst-air-pollution-in-the-country/

 

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What's Behind Surging Ozone Pollution in Texas? Study to Weigh Role of Fracking in Health Hazard

 http://insideclimatenews.org/news/20131023/whats-behind-surging-ozone-pollution-texas-study-weigh-role-fracking-health-hazard

 

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Is the Air in Texas Dangerous to Breathe?


http://www.texastribune.org/2010/06/03/is-the-air-in-texas-dangerous-to-breathe/

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 Texas groups ask EPA Inspector General to investigate thousands of tons of pollution

HOUSTON, TX--April 23, 2013--The Environmental Integrity Project and 9 community and public interest organizations sent a letter to the US EPA Inspector General requesting an investigation of the federal and Texas regulators’ response to repeated breakdowns at nineteen gas and petrochemical facilities in Texas, releasing thousands of tons of pollution over the past four years.


The letter identifies 20 facilities with combined releases of 49,000 tons of sulfur dioxide and other hazardous pollutants. The five plants reporting the most emissions over the four year period due to upsets are:

* Keystone Gas Plant in Winkler County with 13,852 tons of air pollution from 239 incidents;

* ExxonMobil Beaumont in Jefferson County with 6,435 tons of air pollution from 70 incidents;

* Mallet CO2 Recovery Plant in Hockley County with 4,004 tons of air pollution from 110 incidents;

* Goldsmith Gas Plant in Ector County with 3,855 tons of air pollution from 240 incidents; and

* Valero Port Arthur Refinery in Jefferson County with 3,159 tons of air pollution from 100 incidents.



http://www.texasenvironment.org/news_story.cfm?IID=1242


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San Antonio violates federal air quality standards

 August 22, 2012

After years of teetering on the edge of federal ozone standards, San Antonio has joined the ranks of Houston and Dallas in violating the Environmental Protection Agency standard for clean air.
On Tuesday, ozone readings at Camp Bullis and Marshall High School in the north of the county were at 76 parts per billion, just over the EPA limit of 75 ppb.

 http://www.mysanantonio.com/news/environment/article/San-Antonio-appears-on-EPA-s-radar-3807002.php

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Eagle Ford drilling is polluting San Antonio's air

 http://www.mysanantonio.com/news/environment/article/Eagle-Ford-drilling-is-polluting-San-Antonio-s-air-4660237.php

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Environmental Injustice
in Beaumont Texas 

 Although Spindletop evokes images of the glory days in the Texas oil industry, residents of Beaumont living near the modern day Mobil/Exxon oil refinery are suffering under the nearly 39,000 pounds of air pollution spewed out of the complex each year. The massive Mobil complex consists of a huge refinery, three chemical plants, and several other facilities. Despite years of violations, exceedingly high emissions of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, and complaints and health problems in the surrounding neighborhoods, the state environmental regulatory agency--the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) has not issued any formal enforcement actions against the company since 1993.

 http://www.txpeer.org/toxictour/beaumont.html

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 Occupational exposure to benzene at the ExxonMobil refinery in Beaumont, TX

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20494616

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Concerns over unhealthy profits voiced during ExxonMobil Shareholders’ Meeting

Neil Carman, scientist and Lone Star Sierra Club Clean Air director, started off the testimony with information about the pollution caused by refineries in the gulf and ship channel. Carman, who formerly was an inspector with the Texas Air Quality Board, told the panel that, in 2005, ExxonMobil’s Toxic Release Inventory(TRI) included 53 plant sites with more than 12 million pounds of toxic air emissions including cancer-causing benzene and 1,3 butadiene. According to Carman, this is not the whole story. He referred to an EPA aerial surveillance study conducted seven years ago that found that emission levels of refineries in the area are six to seven times higher than reported.  He noted that the state never took any action on this information.


http://www.cleanhouston.org/business/features/xom08.htm

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 Two Southeast Texas plants on list of repeated breakdowns, pollution

 April 24, 2013

April 24, 2013
Two Southeast Texas plants on list of repeated breakdowns, pollution - See more at: http://www.orangeleader.com/local/x2094922103/Two-Southeast-Texas-plants-on-list-of-repeated-breakdowns-pollution#sthash.QRK7wcpd.dpuf

A number of environmental groups are banding together in their bid for an investigation of federal and Texas regulators’ response to repeated breakdowns at the facilities.

The Environmental Integrity Project and nine community and public interest organizations, including Community In Power and Development Association in Port Arthur, sent a letter to the USEPA Inspector General regarding the claims.

They purport that Valero Refinery in Port Arthur and the ExxonMobil Refinery in Beaumont are among the five Texas gas and petrochemical facilities that have released the most pollution over the past four years.



http://www.orangeleader.com/local/x2094922103/Two-Southeast-Texas-plants-on-list-of-repeated-breakdowns-pollution

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Exxon Refinery In Texas Reports Excessive Pollution Emissions

09/13/2012

 

AUSTIN, Texas (AP) — Exxon Mobil Corp. has reported inadvertent emissions of large amounts of pollutants at its flagship refinery near Houston.
Officials at the Baytown refinery reported a leak in a heat exchanger tube on Tuesday prompted them to shut down a flexicoking unit that separates heavy oils into fuels.
In their report to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, the officials reported that the shutdowns resulted in releases of hydrogen sulfide, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide exceeding the plant's permit limits.

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/09/13/exxon-refinery-texas-pollution_n_1880630.html


----------------------

The 7 worst neighborhoods near refineries

(4 of them are located in Texas )

 

-


Baytown, Texas


ExxonMobil's Baytown facility is the largest in the country and processes over a half-million barrels of crude oil per day. The refineries in Baytown and surrounding Harris County see nearly daily accidental releases of chemicals and pollution on top of a steady stream of allowable emissions they put out.


-

Beaumont, Texas

Today, the town is home to ExxonMobil's Beaumont Refinery, the nation's sixth largest and capable of processing 334,500 barrels of oil per day. The refinery is regularly listed as one of the nation's most polluting, and residents have reported headaches and other health problems for years. It's standard operating procedure for refineries to dump tons of chemicals into the storm drains ahead of hurricanes.

-

Corpus Christi, Texas

Corpus Christi is a city of 285,000 located on the Gulf of Mexico 120 miles north of the Mexican border. The town's three large oil refineries collectively process 593,568 barrels of oil a day — 21,000 more than the nation's single largest refinery in Baytown, Texas.

Many of the refineries in Corpus Christi were built in the '30s and '40s and are grandfathered in and protected against modern safety and emissions standards. Last summer, a control valve failed at the Citgo refinery and a fire flared up that burned for days, ultimately dumping over 21 tons of deadly hydrogen fluoride hydrofluoric acid into the air.


Texas City, Texas



Texas City is 40 miles down the highway from downtown Houston and across the water from Galveston. The small city of 41,000 has a busy deepwater port and three oil refiners, one of which is the nation's third-largest.

BP's refinery in Texas City processes 455,790 barrels of crude oil a day. The Valero refinery goes through another 199,500 barrels, and the Marathon refinery handles 76,000.

In 2005, an explosion at BP's refinery rocked homes and businesses up to five miles away, breaking windows over a mile from the plant. It was the largest oil refinery disaster in more than a decade, killing 15 and injuring more than 100. It was large incident, but not an isolated one. Between 2003 and 2004, the BP plant had 57 fire alarms, which, according to Texas City Fire Department chief Gerald Grimm is about par for the course for plants of that size.


http://www.mnn.com/health/fitness-well-being/photos/the-7-worst-neighborhoods-near-refineries/oil-is-everywhere

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Ozone pollution could creep up to potentially dangerous levels Monday in North Texas

 June 2, 2013

 

 http://thescoopblog.dallasnews.com/2013/06/ozone-pollution-could-creep-up-to-potentially-dangerous-levels-monday-in-north-texas.html/

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American Lung Association gives Dallas County “F” grade for its ozone level but says air quality is improving

 

 April 24, 2013

http://thescoopblog.dallasnews.com/2013/04/american-lung-association-gives-dallas-county-f-grade-for-its-ozone-level-but-says-air-quality-is-improving.html/

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Fracking Companies Fight Texas Families' Air Pollution Suits, Fearing Precedent

If two Texas couples win their cases, it could change the assumption that ordinary people can't stand up to the industry, legal expert says.

 Aug 13, 2014

 http://insideclimatenews.org/news/20140813/fracking-companies-fight-texas-families-air-pollution-suits-fearing-precedent

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LOWER COLORADO RIVER AUTHORITY SUED FOR THOUSANDS OF AIR POLLUTION VIOLATIONS AT COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT BETWEEN AUSTIN AND HOUSTON
In Another Major Push to Clean Up Texas Air, Lawsuit Seeks to Enforce Federal Clean Air Act; Pollution at
Issue Linked to Asthma, As Well as Heart and Lung Disease.
HOUSTON, TX
March 7, 2011
Three anti-pollution groups filed a federal lawsuit aimed at cleaning up air
pollution from the Lower Colorado River Authority’s (LCRA) coal-fired power plant located between Austin and Houston. The lawsuit filed today by the Environmental Integrity Project, Texas Campaign for the Environment, and Environment Texas claims the LCRA’s Fayette Power Project is in violation of the Clean Air Act and has violated that federal law thousands of times.

 http://www.environmentalintegrity.org/documents/030711EIPLCRAFayettelawsuitNewsReleaseFINAL3.pdf

 

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Texas Pecan Alliance holds Lower Colorado River Authority and City of Austin responsible for central Texas pecan industry losses
Fayette area growers and producers point to damage from Coal Plant Sulfur Dioxide and Acid Gases


 

 (Austin) Sierra Club and representatives of pecan growers and producers in Fayette and Colorado Counties in the Texas Pecan Alliance requested at an Austin City Hall press conference today compensation for losses resulting from pollution from the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) and City of Austin’s Fayette Power Project coal plant.

“Over two dozen orchards and the livelihoods of my family and many of our neighbors have been seriously impacted by the pollution from Fayette coal plant,” said Harvey Hayek of Hayek Farm and the Texas Pecan Alliance. “In 1980, the year after the coal plant went on line, we saw the abundant production out here drop and then in the Nineties, the trees began to die. Recently, I had to buy a bag of pecans at H.E.B. so my wife could make cookies.”

Hayek and almost 50 people in the Texas Pecan Alliance met with LCRA officials and engineers from Austin Energy and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) on November 16. Since the meeting, the TCEQ is considering additional monitoring, members of Austin City Council have set up meetings for further discussion, and the LCRA has denied Fayette coal plant contributed to pecan industry losses. Dr. Neil Carman chemist and Clean Air Program Director, biochemical injury process, "Acid pollution from the coal plant falls on the leaves causing damage characterized by brown, dead spots, while the sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas from the plant emissions enters the sensitive leaf structure from underneath, biochemically attacking the leaves from within and eventually causing leaf loss and the death of the tree."

http://texas.sierraclub.org/press/newsreleases/20101206.1.asp


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Big Bend: Air Pollution Threatens Texas' Majestic Landscape

 http://www.txpeer.org/toxictour/big_bend.html

 

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COMPARE MARBLE FALLS TEXAS POLLUTION










 http://toxic-release.findthedata.org/d/d/Texas/Marble-Falls

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Compare San Antonio Texas Pollution

 http://toxic-release.findthedata.org/d/d/Texas/San-Antonio

 


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Demand Cleanup of Toxic Plume

 

 2014/03/26

 

 http://forcechange.com/132893/demand-cleanup-of-toxic-plume/

 

The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) has known about the dangerous toxic plume threatening the citizens of McAllen, Texas for years. The plume leaks the known carcinogen, benzene. Cleanup has been stalled for decades because the cause of the contamination could be linked to three companies and not all companies are willing to pay for the pollution. Help the citizens of McAllen live without fear of explosion or disease by demanding a much awaited cleanup.

The toxic plume lives underground on top of the groundwater. Although citizens of McAllen do not drink the groundwater, the plume leaks benzene as well as proves to be extremely flammable. Benzene is a colorless liquid that can leak into the soil and evaporate to reach homes and families. This toxin is linked to crude oil and gas. In the opinion of locals, the benzene has affected the health of many neighbors with cancer and leukemia. These diseases are big hits but another risk looms below the surface. The plume is highly explosive. This town could see the same fate as Guadalajara, Mexico in 1992. Also situated underneath a toxic plume, Guadalajara’s underground contamination triggered numerous explosions by the plume’s leak into the sewer systems. This event caused 252 deaths and nearly 15,000 homeless victims.


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Texas stinks, says pollution group

 An environmental group ranked Texas among the nation's worst industrial polluters.

The National Resources Defense Council said in a report that Texas pumped 41.4 million pounds of toxic chemicals into the air in 2010, meaning the electricity sector accounting for roughly 25 percent of the state's pollution.

The Lone Star State ranked 10th, up three spots from 2009, according to the NRDC. Energy Future Holdings' Big Brown plant ranked as the top polluter in Texas in 2010 with more than 4 million pounds of toxins. Kentucky, Ohio and Pennsylvania topped the list.

The report, dubbed "The Toxic Twenty," also noted that Texas was one of eight states where both senators opposed new Environmental Protection Agency regulations aimed at reduce air pollution across state borders and mercury from industrial plants.



http://www.beaumontenterprise.com/news/article/Texas-stinks-says-pollution-group-3778124.php

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From 2000 to 2012, ozone levels in Texas have decreased by 23 Percent

  • The average for all states plus District of Columbia and Puerto Rico only showed a decrease of 12 percent.
  • The eight-hour ozone levels for the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) and Dallas–Fort Worth (DFW) nonattainment areas have been trending downward for the 1997 eight-hour NAAQS since 2000.
  • As of 2013, eleven areas of the state with monitors have ozone levels that are below the 2008 ozone standard.
  • The EPA has designated the El Paso area to be in attainment of the 1997 ozone standard.
  • The EPA has redesignated the Beaumont area in attainment of the 1997 ozone standard.
   - based on ozone design value as defined by EPA


http://www.tceq.texas.gov/airquality/airsuccess


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Texas Wins Clean Air Act Fight with EPA

 March 28, 2012

 http://www.volokh.com/2012/03/28/texas-wins-clean-air-act-fight-with-epa/

 

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Supreme Court's Air Pollution Ruling Goes Against Texas

 April 29, 2014

 

The state of Texas, which has fought the federal government over several environmental regulations, lost a major battle Tuesday, as U.S. Supreme Court justices ruled in a 6-2 vote to reinstate a regulation that aims to limit the effects of air pollution across state boundaries.

Texas was one of a number of states, joined by industry and labor groups, that had sued the Environmental Protection Agency over the Cross-State Pollution Rule in 2011.

Tuesday’s Supreme Court ruling means that Texas and 26 other "upwind" states in the South, Midwest and Appalachia will have to reduce some of their emissions that contribute to air pollution in East Coast states like New York. Coal plants are among those likely be the most affected, particularly as they are already dealing with new limits on their carbon dioxide emissions.

 

 http://www.texastribune.org/2014/04/29/texas-loses-fight-against-epa-air-pollution-rule/

----------------------------------------------

 


Neeley: Rule could mean lights out in Texas


November 29, 2013

Two years ago, Texas' electrical grid faced a close call. In August of 2011, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a new regulation, the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, which required Texas to cut sulfur dioxide emissions by 47 percent by 2012.
In response, Luminant, the largest generator in Texas, announced it would idle 1,200 MW of generating capacity, closing three Texas lignite coal mines and laying off 500 employees. A study by the Electrical Reliability Council of Texas, which operates Texas' electrical grid, concluded that had the Cross-State Rule been in effect during the hot summer of 2011, Texas would have faced rolling blackouts. Only a stay of the Cross-State Rule, granted just two days before the rule was scheduled to go into effect, prevented Texas from facing this government-induced catastrophe.
That threat may be returning. On Dec. 10, the U.S. Supreme Court will hear oral arguments in American Lung Association v. EME Homer City Generation, the legal challenge to the Cross-State Rule. Should the Supreme Court uphold the Cross-State Rule, the implications both for Texas and for the nation could be profound.

http://www.chron.com/opinion/outlook/article/Neeley-Rule-could-mean-lights-out-in-Texas-5022640.php

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CLEAN AIR ACT SETTLEMENTS RESULTED IN HUGE EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS, MAKING HOUSTON’S AIR CLEANER

Posted on


Shell Deer Park and Chevron Phillips Cedar Bay ou Cut Major “Upset” Emissions by 95%

$7.8 Million in Penalties Funded Local Environmental Health
and Pollution Reduction Programs


                HOUSTON – Sierra Club and Environment Texas announced today that Shell Oil Company and Chevron Phillips Chemical Company have each cut illegal air pollution from major “upset” events at their Gulf Coast plants by about 95%.  Those reductions are even more than was required by their settlements of federal Clean Air Act lawsuits brought by the environmental groups, and have contributed to recent efforts to improve air quality in the Houston metropolitan area.

At issue in the cases were illegal air emissions arising from so-called “upset” events – equipment breakdowns, malfunctions, and other non-routine occurrences – at Shell’s Deer Park oil refinery and chemical plant and Chevron Phillips’ Cedar Bayou chemical plant in Baytown. The illegal emissions included carcinogens, smog-forming chemicals, and other hazardous air pollutants discharged in excess of limits in the facilities’ Clean Air Act permits.

 http://texasgreenreport.wordpress.com/

 

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Texas Air Pollution Compared to Other States

 

 http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/09/29/us/politics/texas-air-pollution-compared-to-other-states.html?_r=0

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EPA rejects a Texas clean-air plan, orders pollution upgrades on some big coal plants


November 24, 2014


http://thescoopblog.dallasnews.com/2014/11/epa-rejects-a-texas-clean-air-plan-orders-pollution-upgrades-on-some-big-coal-plants.html/

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EPA requires Texas power plants to lower pollution

  8 Jul 2011

http://www.golaketravis.com/news.php?id=2210

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Oil and Gas Facility ‘Accidents’ Are Major Source of Air Pollution

 July 18, 2012

 Environmental Integrity Project


“Accidents” and other non-routine events at Texas oil and gas facilities, refineries and petrochemical plants released almost 100,000 tons of pollution from 2009-2011, according to a new report from the Environmental Integrity Project (EIP) based on data from gathered from a Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) database.

http://ecowatch.com/2012/07/18/texas-air-pollution/

 

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 ----

Chapter 5: Pesticides

 ----

-------------------------------------------------------------

 

DuPont: 23K pounds of toxic gas escaped from plant


November 28, 2014

 
About 23,000 pounds of a flammable, acidic, toxic chemical escaped in the building where four DuPont workers recently died at a pesticide plant in La Porte, the company reported Friday.

That amount of gas could quickly displace the air in an enclosed space, leading to asphyxiation, which medical examiners identified as the cause of the workers' deaths. Although the company has not disclosed how quickly the liquid material escaped and vaporized, it's enough that, if it happened at once, it could fill two Olympic-sized swimming pools.

"The displacement of oxygen would be very severe and very quick," said a former DuPont engineer familiar with the plant and who spoke on the condition of anonymity, adding "within the time it takes you to take a couple of breaths ... that's how quick it is, and you have no idea what's happening to you. Just all of the sudden you're unconscious."

The company was required to submit the report to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Although DuPont disclosed the amount of gas in a three-paragraph news release, it declined to release the full report. Commission offices were closed Friday.

The Nov. 15 release of methyl mercaptan, a foul-smelling gas that, besides its use in pesticide production, is sometimes used to odorize natural gas, is under investigation by the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board.
While details of the accident are still emerging, a Chronicle investigation found the pesticide production facility had been plagued with recurring maintenance problems and that workers lacked quick access to breathing equipment that would have given them a better chance at survival.



Those killed included Crystle Rae Wise, 53, the first to alert others of a leak; Wade Baker, 60, a longtime supervisor; and brothers Gilbert and Robert Tisnado, 48 and 39, respectively.

Family members and their attorneys said some of the workers who died were trying to help the others escape. They and the company have indicated a faulty valve may have been involved in the release. The gas escaped from pipes and vessels inside the pesticide unit, DuPont spokesman Aaron Woods said.

That methyl mercaptan leaked and killed workers was a tragic irony in a plant that was upgraded years ago to curb the hazards of what's considered a much deadlier chemical: methyl isocyanate, or MIC. It's the chemical responsible for initially killing more than 2,200 people after escaping an Indian pesticide plant in 1984, causing lingering injuries and deaths for thousands more in the world's worst industrial disaster. Even tiny concentrations of the chemical can be deadly.


DuPont engineers won an industry award for upgrades that allowed the company to produce and consume small batches of MIC, eliminating the need to store and transport it.

Methyl mercaptan, on the other hand, had always been viewed as a "pussycat chemical" by comparison, the former engineer said. The La Porte plant routinely contained tens of thousands of pounds of the mercaptan, according to government documents...

http://www.chron.com/news/houston-texas/houston/article/DuPont-says-23-000-pounds-of-toxic-gas-escaped-5923055.php

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Toxic gas released over 6 years at DuPont Texas plant

  January 13, 2015

DuPont had notified the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality that the exhaust and ventilation system at its La Porte, Texas, plant malfunctioned and released small quantities of a dangerous chemical over a six-year period, according to the company’s filing with the regulatory agency.

However, no one ever alerted the Occupational Health and Safety Administration about the levels of toxic gas methyl mercaptan at the Texas facility where four employees were killed in November after being exposed to an extremely high level of the chemical, additional records show.

The exhaust and ventilation system had become clogged with fluids at several points since 2008. DuPont reported that during attempts to clean the system, as much as 3 pounds of methyl mercaptan leaked out in one hour, according to 2009 and 2010 TCEQ reports.

 http://www.delawareonline.com/story/money/business/2015/01/13/toxic-gas-released-years-dupont-texas-plant/21716881/

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Compare Texas Pollution

 Dupont Beaumont Plant: Nederland, Texas : Nitrate Compounds released      -  7.72M Pounds.  


Dupont Victoria Plant: Victoria, Texas:  Nitric Acid released - 7.56M Pounds


 
Basf Corp:  Freeport, Texas: Nitrate Compounds  released  -7.53M Pounds   



http://toxic-release.findthedata.org/d/d/Texas

 

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For additional information about DuPont & Monsanto, visit my site, Youtube.com/investigations2012. The theme of this site, deals with voter fraud in the 2012 elections. This includes the ongoing political corruption, that continues to harm the planet.


The DuPont investigation

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qn5Pjh00vEI  (http://dupontinvestigation.blogspot.com/)


The Monsanto investigation

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yXr1z6fMOj4 (http://monsantoinvestigation.blogspot.com/)

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Texas Requests "Emergency Use" of Hazardous Herbicide to Kill Superweeds

 June 18th, 2014



 http://www.centerforfoodsafety.org/press-releases/3247/texas-requests-emergency-use-of-hazardous-herbicide-to-kill-superweeds#

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is requesting comments on a petition filed by the Texas Department of Agriculture to permit emergency use of the hazardous herbicide propazine to kill herbicide resistant weeds infesting Texas cotton. Calling the resistant weeds an emergency, Texas requested to use hundreds of thousands of pounds of the toxic chemical on up to three million acres of cotton.
“This request clearly demonstrates that herbicide-resistant crops – by generating an epidemic of resistant weeds – lead directly to increased use of hazardous chemicals,” said Bill Freese, Science Policy Analyst at Center for Food Safety. “EPA should reject this request.”
Propazine is a possible human carcinogen and a restricted use pesticide - EPA’s category for particularly hazardous agricultural chemicals. EPA has found that propazine, like atrazine, is an endocrine disruptor (disrupts the hormonal system); and that when fed to pregnant rats, it causes birth defects in their young. Propazine is persistent, requiring years to break down, and is detected in both ground and surface waters. The European Union has banned propazine due to its toxicity.
Granting the emergency request to use propazine to kill glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth, also known as pigweed, would lead to a 10-fold increase in the use of the toxic herbicide, from just 20,000 to 50,000 lbs. in 2010 and 2011 to 280,000 pounds per year.
“Herbicide-resistant crops lead to increased herbicide use and this is just the beginning,” added Freese. “Monsanto, Dow Chemical, and the other pesticide-seed giants have developed a host of genetically engineered crops that will trigger a huge spike in the use of toxic weed-killers. This is hazardous to farmers, to consumers and to the environment.”
“USDA and EPA need to do their job of protecting American citizens and agriculture by rejecting this request. They should also stop these companies’ from introducing more pesticide-promoting, genetically engineered crops,” said Freese.
Background:
Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth, also known as pigweed, is one of 14 glyphosate-resistant weed species that have been generated by intensive use of glyphosate with Monsanto’s Roundup Ready crops, which are genetically engineered to withstand repeated dousing with the herbicide.
Texas' three million acres of cotton represents about ¼ of the United States’ annual production.


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EPA Denies Hazardous Pesticide Use on 3 Million Acres of Texas Cotton Fields

 

 

WASHINGTON, July 23, 2014 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) denied an emergency application to use a hazardous pesticide on 3 million acres of Texas cotton fields, after groups representing environmental, public health, and organic farm interests urged the agency to reject the request based on environmental effects and the predictable nature of the weed resistance to currently used chemicals.
Despite finding that the application met the urgent and non-routine emergency criteria, EPA cited aggregate exposure through drinking water and other risk assessment concerns as the reason for the denial.

 

http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/epa-denies-hazardous-pesticide-use-on-3-million-acres-of-texas-cotton-fields-268303482.html

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Texas Natural Resources Server

Reducing Pesticide Risks To Wildlife In Cotton

In recent years the public has become more concerned about pesticides and their effects on the environment. From 1987 to 1989, Texas farmers and ranchers treated an average of 15 million acres with insecticides and 20 million acres with herbicides. As stewards of the land and natural resources, farmers and ranchers should strive to use pesticides properly in order to minimize environmental risks.


About 70 percent of the pesticides used in the U.S. are herbicides. Most herbicides used on cotton in Texas are only slightly toxic to birds and mammals (Table 1). One exception is paraquat (Gramoxone Extra®, Cyclone®), which is toxic to birds and bird embryos. Some herbicides are highly toxic to fish. These include fluazifop (Fusilade 2000®), fluometuron (Cotoran®), pendimethalin (Prowl®) and trifluralin (Treflan®).

 http://texnat.tamu.edu/library/publications/reducing-pesticide-risks-to-wildlife-in-cotton/

 

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Fungicides going out ASR moving in Louisiana, Texas

 Jul 27, 2007

 http://deltafarmpress.com/fungicides-going-out-asr-moving-louisiana-texas

 

Asian soybean rust continues to travel through Louisiana and Texas. The week of July 16 found Louisiana with its first ASR in commercial soybeans this season. Of even more concern, however, is the fungal disease has nearly reached Dallas.
“It looks like ASR has flared in the Upper Coast region of Texas — the area between Victoria and Houston,” says Tom Isakeit, Texas A&M plant pathologist. “It's really picked up around Victoria and appears to have been in place several weeks.
“Some fields are heavily infected. Other fields have leaves completely covered with rust, and plants are defoliating. Most, if not all, soybean fields in that area seem to have detectable levels of ASR.”
Traveling north checking soybean plants, Isakeit found more ASR at lower levels. “There was only a trace amount of ASR in Austin County fields. Closer to College Station, in Burleson County, there was also a trace amount in one field.”
Most surprising, however, was the July 19 find just south of Dallas. In one field corner Isakeit found rust was “quite extensive. There was rust on 100 percent of the R-6 plants in that corner. Most fields in that area are at R-5, or younger.
“In other (Dallas-area) fields I've found trace amounts of ASR confined to the lower canopy. The crop is in position to receive and benefit from a timely fungicide application.”
In Louisiana, alerted to a possible ASR find by a consultant near Cheneyville July 17, an ASR scout team from the LSU AgCenter checked Avoyelles Parish and Rapides Parish.
“We searched 17 soybean fields and 10, or so, were positive for ASR,” says David Lanclos, LSU AgCenter soybean specialist. “I believe there were seven positive fields in Rapides Parish and three in Avoyelles Parish. ASR is moving.”
Recent rain in Louisiana “is probably inhibiting the spread of ASR. That's certainly a twist on things. To get ASR sporulation, we probably need more sunshine.”
Lanclos points to Texas as a “major worry — ASR appears to be popping over there. That's obviously a concern for Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas.”
Most fields — all with R-5/R-6 soybeans — where the LSU team found ASR have been sprayed with a fungicide.

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 Different counties in Texas, have allowed tax benefits to farmers, that use fungicides on their fields.  This means that the state is encouraging farmers, to use fungicide on their farmland. 

  Even in different states, such as North Dakota, have made fungicides, herbicides and insecticides tax exempt. This is seen in the following link.


Sales Tax Exemptions: North Dakota

  http://www.nd.gov/tax/salesanduse/pubs/guide/gl-21814.pdf?20150201130035

 

Fungicides, Herbicides and Insecticides:


The gross receipts from sales of fungicides, seed treatments, inoculants, fumigants, herbicides, insecticides and chemicals used to protect or preserve agricultural crops are exempt from North Dakota sales and use tax when sold to commercial applicators or agricul tural or commercial vegetable producers. Adjuvants necessary for the application of exempt chemicals also are exempt from tax...

 http://www.nd.gov/tax/salesanduse/pubs/guide/gl-21814.pdf?20150201130035

------------------------------------


The reason why the state of Texas is encouraging farmers to use fungicides on their fields, is to prevent certain types damage done to crops and livestock. This also includes the use fungicides encouraged by the state, to stop hallucinogenic mushrooms, from forming in the rural fields of Texas.

This seems like a lot of fungicide is being used, while many reports of honeybees that are dying off, from being related to the use of fungicides.

We can see how the use of so many pesticides and fungicides, can throw off the ecosystem of different regions of this planet.



------------------------------------------


Scientists discover another cause of bee deaths, and it's really bad news


 July 26, 2013

 http://www.treehugger.com/natural-sciences/scientists-discover-another-cause-bee-deaths-and-its-really-bad-news.html


The researchers behind that study in PLOS ONE -- Jeffery S. Pettis, Elinor M. Lichtenberg, Michael Andree, Jennie Stitzinger, Robyn Rose, Dennis vanEngelsdorp -- collected pollen from hives on the east coast, including cranberry and watermelon crops, and fed it to healthy bees. Those bees had a serious decline in their ability to resist a parasite that causes Colony Collapse Disorder. The pollen they were fed had an average of nine different pesticides and fungicides, though one sample of pollen contained a deadly brew of 21 different chemicals. Further, the researchers discovered that bees that ate pollen with fungicides were three times more likely to be infected by the parasite.

The discovery means that fungicides, thought harmless to bees, is actually a significant part of Colony Collapse Disorder. And that likely means farmers need a whole new set of regulations about how to use fungicides. While neonicotinoids have been linked to mass bee deaths -- the same type of chemical at the heart of the massive bumble bee die off in Oregon -- this study opens up an entirely new finding that it is more than one group of pesticides, but a combination of many chemicals, which makes the problem far more complex.

And it is not just the types of chemicals used that need to be considered, but also spraying practices. The bees sampled by the authors foraged not from crops, but almost exclusively from weeds and wildflowers, which means bees are more widely exposed to pesticides than thought.

The authors write, "[M]ore attention must be paid to how honey bees are exposed to pesticides outside of the field in which they are placed. We detected 35 different pesticides in the sampled pollen, and found high fungicide loads. The insecticides esfenvalerate and phosmet were at a concentration higher than their median lethal dose in at least one pollen sample. While fungicides are typically seen as fairly safe for honey bees, we found an increased probability of Nosema infection in bees that consumed pollen with a higher fungicide load. Our results highlight a need for research on sub-lethal effects of fungicides and other chemicals that bees placed in an agricultural setting are exposed to."


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Study shows one-third of pesticides used in Texas local parks are moderately or highly toxic

 

 

 

AUSTIN, Texas -City parks departments used at least 75,000 pounds of pesticides in Texas public parks in 1998, almost one-third of which classify as moderately or highly toxic under Environmental Protection Agency standards, a study released today by the Texas Pesticide Information Network shows.
The Texas Pesticide Information Network, an Austin-based nonprofit organization, surveyed the 25 largest metropolitan areas in Texas to determine the magnitude, frequency and potential health risks of toxic chemical use in parks. The results are analyzed in a report, Play at Your Own Risk: the Hidden Dangers of Pesticide Use in Texas’ City Parks, and accompanying Web site, http://www.txpin.org/parks.

Of the cities surveyed, Midland ranked first both in pesticide use per acre and percentage of toxic pesticide applications, with 74 percent of its pesticides bearing the EPA’s DANGER label (second only to the agency’s POISON/DANGER distinction.) Odessa and Brownsville ranked next in toxicity, while Garland, Wichita Falls, Irving and Tyler followed Midland in pesticide use per acre.

 

https://consumersunion.org/news/study-shows-one-third-of-pesticides-used-in-texas-local-parks-are-moderately-or-highly-toxic/

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Poisoned for Profit: How Toxins are Making Our Children Chronically Ill


page 161

Coconspiring by the states

 

http://books.google.com/books?id=R1t-teyadzcC&pg=PA161&lpg=PA161&dq=beaumont+texas+pollution&source=bl&ots=f3s1KDHATH&sig=v8y8R6L6UDAHq05tnXtR0YCFfbo&hl=en&sa=X&ei=rE3AUsDxJM3rkAes-oCgDQ&ved=0CGoQ6AEwBzgo#v=onepage&q=beaumont%20texas%20pollution&f=false


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Slow Death, Slower Justice

June 29, 2007


How pesticides poisoned South Mission, but no one is responsible.


The pesticide mixer’s wife limped out of the early morning darkness onto a white bus bound for the state Capitol. Tomasa Garza, 72, settled in next to her husband, her gray hair pulled back, a large gold cross dangling from her neck. In Spanish, she asked a relative across the aisle about his family. He said a child was ill and they were unsure why. It’s a familiar refrain for the 20 passengers on the bus and for the hundreds more from their poor neighborhood in Mission, Texas, near the Mexico border. For decades this community has been plagued by cancer and birth defects, a trail of human suffering that residents are convinced stems from the pesticide-processing plant that operated in the neighborhood from 1950 to 1972. Since the facility closed, attempts to remove toxic residues and compensate residents have repeatedly foundered.

 As the bus set forth at 5:30 a.m. on May 2, residents hoped this time would be different. They were traveling to Austin to ask lawmakers for a resolution encouraging the Texas Supreme Court to decide a case that has languished since 1999. The mass toxic tort is against Hayes-Sammons Chemical Co. and a slew of other big firms affiliated with the processing facility and a large warehouse a half-mile away. Federal and state environmental agencies have found significant contamination at both sites, but a jury has yet to hear arguments in the case while the court works through legal technicalities. In the meantime, plaintiffs have died waiting for the trial.

 http://www.texasobserver.org/2534-slow-death-slower-justice-how-pesticides-poisoned-south-mission-but-no-one-is-responsible/

 

 

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Childhood Pesticide Exposures on the Texas–Mexico Border: Clinical Manifestations and Poison Center Use

  2003 August


The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that more than 1 billion pounds of conventional-pesticide active ingredients are used annually in the United States1 and that 85% of all families store and use pesticides in and around their homes.2 Human exposure to pesticides can occur in the home through residues in food and water and through drift from agricultural activities.3–7 Because they may be ubiquitous in and around households, pesticides represent a particular potential hazard to young children. - 

Pesticides commonly encountered by young children include rodenticides and insecticides. Insecticides such as carbamates (e.g., Sevin, Baygon), organophosphates (e.g., malathion, diazinon), and pyrethrins (e.g., permethrin) are constituents of numerous ant and roach extermination products and are widely used in agriculture. Permethrin (e.g., Elimite, Nix) is contained in products used to treat lice and scabies; lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, also is used to treat lice and scabies.
Areas in the United States where urban communities are in close proximity to agriculture are of great concern with regard to pesticide exposures.13 One such area is the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas, which includes 2 Texas–Mexico border counties, Hidalgo and Cameron, and 1 nonborder county, Willacy...

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1447962/

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PESTICIDES IN SCHOOLS
A Texas Parent’s Bill of Rights

http://www.texascenter.org/txpin/rights.pdf

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Plane sprays high school band students with toxic pesticides


https://www.intellihub.com/plane-sprays-high-school-band-students-toxic-pesticides/


 

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 ----

Chapter 6: Endangered animals in Texas

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-----------------------------------

 

 

Insecticide tolerances of two crayfish populations (Procambarus acutus) in south-central Texas.

DDT, Methyl parathion and toxaphene have been used in cotton fields in the Brazos River floodplain in Burleson County.

Crayfish near these types of agricultural areas are often exposed to pesticide and insecticide contamination. 


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4669505

 

-----------------------------------------

 

Texas Endangered Species Policy, Part II: Salamander Wars

  Letting Texas Realtors Run Texas Watersheds

Governor Bush's role in Austin salamander and water quality controversies discloses the true meaning of his campaign slogan, "Let Texans Run Texas." During his first gubernatorial campaign in 1994, he opposed efforts to give Barton Springs an "outstanding natural resource waters" designation that would have increased protections for water quality at this popular spring-fed swimming pool. In 1995 he supported passage of legislation designed to thwart an Austin citizens' initiative and other ordinances designed to protect water quality and endangered species in Barton Creek and the Barton Springs Swimming Pool. Lobbyists representing a variety of pro-property rights and real estate groups supported this legislation while also contributing $1,350,279 to Governor Bush's gubernatorial campaigns. The Austin citizens' initiative would have increased restrictions on real estate developments planned for the Barton Creek watershed and Barton Springs recharge zone.


http://www.txpeer.org/Bush/Salamander_Wars.html


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Madla Cave meshweaver

The Madla Cave meshweaver (scientific name: cicurina madla) is the enigmatic "endangered blind spider" that lives on the UTSA Main Campus inhibiting construction in certain areas. It is called "blind" because it is "essentially eyeless." It is found only in Texas, only in Bexar County, and only in 8 caves, two of which (Hills and Dales Pit and Robbers Cave) are on the Main Campus. At least one of the other caves has non-native red fire ants as a problem for the meshweaver's survival. Its conservation status is listed as "critically imperiled," which is one step above "possibly extirpated." UTSA has expressed its intention to account for the safety of this species in its 2016 Master Plan. The cave which gives the spider its name is probably named after Texas state senator Frank Madla from San Antonio's southwest side.

The spider was listed endangered in 2000.  The most important factor in the decline of the Madla Cave meshweaver is habitat loss. The caves that make up its habitat have been filled in, quarries have been made, and pollution also affects the species.


http://utsa.wikia.com/wiki/Madla_Cave_meshweaver

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 Two Central Texas Salamanders Receive Endangered Species Act Protections


AUSTIN, Texas— The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on August 19 protected two Texas salamanders under the Endangered Species Act and designated 4,451 acres as critical habitat for the rare amphibians. The decision to protect the Jollyville Plateau salamander and Austin blind salamander was spurred by a landmark settlement with the Center for Biological Diversity in 2011 that is expediting federal protection decisions for 757 imperiled species across the country.


http://www.enn.com/press_releases/4197

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

 

Tooth Cave Ground Beetle Rhadine persephone

Endangered Status  The Tooth Cave Ground Beetle is on the U.S. Endangered Species List. It is classified as endangered in Texas. This beetle is found in more than two dozen caves in Travis and Williamson Counties, on the Edwards Plateau. Human expansion in Texas has meant the destruction of many caves, and the pollution and alteration of the temperature and humiditiy conditions in others. The Fire Ant, a species not native to the region, preys on many cave invertebrates like this one.

http://www.enature.com/fieldguides/detail.asp?source=zipGuides&parkid=&searchText=&allSpecies=y&shapeID=0&lshapeID=0&curAbbr=&lastView=default&lastGroup=1&lastRegion=1682&lastFilter=4&lastShapeName=&trackType=&curRegionID=1682&size=&habitat=&fruit=&color=&sortBy=family&zipGuide=endangered&filter=4&curFamilyID=&regionSelect=All+regions&regionZIP=&btnSubmit=&curGroupID=4&lgfromWhere=&curPageNum=3

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Endangered and Threatened Animals of Texas: Their Life History and Management

page 100


http://books.google.com/books?id=oLjyhRyljqcC&pg=PA101&lpg=PA101&dq=pollution+comal+river&source=bl&ots=H6vS4tcDVr&sig=_0leXPF3oOYb71RJK7kdrvIh7DE&hl=en&sa=X&ei=rba1UqHKDumh2QXV4oHACQ&ved=0CEgQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=pollution%20comal%20river&f=false

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------ 

The Top Ten Invasive Species in Texas

 

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Chapter 7: Texas Superfund sites & Brownfield sites

  ----

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---------------------------------------------------------

 

EPA's Region 6 Office

Serving: Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and 66 Tribal Nations


Texas Site Status Summaries


Air Force Plant #4(General Dynamics) (PDF, 4 pp, 109K)
Alcoa/Lavaca Bay (PDF, 4 pp, 266K)
Bailey Waste Disposal (PDF, 5 pp, 569K)
Bandera Road Groundwater Plume (PDF, 6 pp, 1660K)
Bio-Ecology Systems, Inc. (PDF, 3 pp, 68K)
Brine Service Company (PDF, 5 pp, 81K)
Brio Refining, Inc. (PDF, 3 pp, 575K)
Circle Court Ground Water Plume (PDF, 5 pp, 317 K)
City of Perryton Water Well #2 (PDF, 3 pp, 121K)
Conroe Creosote (PDF, 3 pp, 216K)
Crystal Chemical Co. (PDF, 6 pp, 362K)
Crystal City Airport (PDF, 4 pp, 90K)
Dixie Oil Processors, Inc. (PDF, 2 pp, 77K)
Donna Reservoir and Canal (PDF, 4 pp, 119K)
East 67th Street Ground Water Plume (PDF, 5 pp, 402K)
El Paso County/Dona Ana County Metals
Falcon Refinery (PDF, 5 pp, 265K)
French, Ltd. (PDF, 5 pp, 605K)
Garland Creosoting (PDF, 4 pp, 75K)
Geneva Industries/Fuhrmann Energy (PDF, 4 pp, 140K)
Gulfco Marine Maintenance (PDF, 4 pp, 80K)
Hart Creosoting Company (PDF, 6 pp, 175K)
Highlands Acid Pit (PDF, 5 pp, 444K)
Jasper Creosoting Company (PDF, 6 pp, 411K)
Jones Road Ground Water Plume (PDF, 3 pp, 268K)
Koppers Co., Inc. (Texarkana Plant) (PDF, 7 pp, 82K)
Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant (PDF, 5 pp, 125K)
Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant (PDF, 6 pp, 900K)
Malone Services Company (PDF, 6 pp, 109K)
Many Diversified Interests, Inc. (PDF, 10 pp, 241K)
Midessa Ground Water Plume (PDF, 6 pp, 517K)
MOTCO, Inc. (PDF, 4 pp, 150K)
North Cavalcade Street (PDF, 6 pp, 380K)
North East 2nd Street Site (PDF, 4 pp, 199K)
Odessa Chromium #1 (PDF, 4 pp, 65K)
Odessa Chromium #2 (PDF, 4 pp, 57K)
Old ESCO (PDF, 4 pp, 1560K)
Palestine Arsenic
Palmer Barge Line (PDF, 3 pp, 89K)
Pantex Plant (USDOE) (PDF, 5 pp, 640K)
Patrick Bayou (PDF, 3 pp, 83K)
Pesses Chemical Co. (PDF, 4 pp, 75K)
Petro-Chemical Systems, Inc. (Turtle Bayou) (PDF, 9 pp 165K)
R&H Oil/Tropicana Energy Site (PDF, 5pp, 660K)
RSR Corp. (Murph Metals) (PDF, 3 pp, 99K)
Rockwool Industries, Inc. (PDF, 6 pp, 236K)
Sandy Beach Road (PDF, 5 pp, 421K)
San Jacinto River Waste Pits (PDF, 5 pp, 255K)
Sheridan Disposal Services (PDF, 3 pp, 444K)
Sikes Disposal Pits (PDF, 4 pp, 190K)
Sol Lynn/Industrial Transformers (PDF, 4 pp, 260K)
South Cavalcade Street (PDF, 5 pp, 482K)
Sprague Road (PDF, 7 pp, 764K)
Star Lake Canal (PDF, 5 pp, 263K)
State Marine of Port Arthur (PDF, 3 pp, 84K)
State Road 114 Ground Water Plume (PDF, 7 pp, 961K)
Stewco, Inc. (PDF, 3 pp, 82K)
Tex-Tin Corporation (PDF, 3 pp, 81K)
Texarkana Wood Preserving Co. (PDF, 5 pp, 90K)
Triangle Chemical Co. (PDF, 3 pp, 147K)
United Creosoting Co. (PDF, 3 pp, 227K)
US Oil Recovery (PDF, 3 pp, 255K)
Van Der Horst (PDF, 4 pp, 98K)
West County Road112 (PDF, 3 pp, 300K)

 

 -------------------------------------------------------

 

An Interactive Map of EPA Superfund Sites in Texas

 

 https://stateimpact.npr.org/texas/2012/06/05/an-interactive-map-of-epa-superfund-sites-in-texas/

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Alphabetical Index of Superfund Sites in Texas

 https://www.tceq.texas.gov/remediation/superfund/sites/byname.html

ALCOA/Lavaca Bay
The EPA's web page on this former aluminum smelter in Point Comfort, Calhoun County.
Air Force Plant 4
The EPA's web page on this goverment owned military aircraft manufacturing facility in Fort Worth, Tarrant County.
Aluminum Finishing
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required at this former metal finishing facility in Houston, Harris County. This site was remediated under the Voluntary Cleanup Program.
American Zinc
This former zinc smelter in Dumas, Moore County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
Angus Road Groundwater Plume
The groundwater at this Ector County site is contaminated with 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, and manganese from an unknown source. The site is in the remedial investigation (RI) phase.
ArChem Thames/Chelsea
The TCEQ has deleted the ArChem Thames/Chelsea Chemical Company site from the state Superfund Registry. No further Superfund environmental response actions are required at this former specialty chemical manufacturing and toll processing plant in Houston, Harris County.
Avinger Development Company (ADCO)
This former wood treatment facility in Avinger, Cass County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
Aztec Ceramics
This former ceramic tile manufacturing site in San Antonio, Bexar County, is in the operation and maintenance phase of the State Superfund Program. The TCEQ has deleted this site from the state Superfund Registry.
Aztec Mercury
The TCEQ has deleted this site from the state Superfund registry. No further Superfund environmental response actions are required at this former mercury-recycling facility in Brazoria County.
Bailey Metal Processors, Inc.
This former scrap copper and lead reclamation facility in Brady, McCulloch County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
Bailey Waste Disposal
The EPA's web page on this former scrap metal dealer in Bridge City, Orange County
Baldwin Waste Oil Company
This former waste oil processing facility in Robstown, Nueces County is currently in the Operation and Maintenance phase of the Superfund Program.
Ballard Pits
This former sand and gravel pits site in Robstown, Nueces County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
Bandera Road Ground Water Plume
The EPA's web page on this groundwater plume in Leon Valley, Bexar County.
Barlow's Wills Point Plating
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this former electroplating facility in Wills Point, Van Zandt County.
Bestplate
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this former metal fabrication and plating facility in Hutchins, Dallas County.
Bio-Ecology Systems, Inc.
The EPA's web page on this former Class 1 solid waste management facility in Grand Prairie, Dallas County.
Brine Service Company
The EPA's web page on these two waste disposal pit areas in Corpus Christi, Nueces County.
Brio Refining, Inc.
The EPA's web page on this former refining, recycling and recovery facility in Friendswood, Harris County.
Butler Ranch
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on these two abandoned uranium mining pits containing drums of hazardous substances in Falls City, Karnes County. This site was referred to the Texas Railroad Commission.
Camtraco Enterprises, Inc.
This former fuel storage/fuel blending/distillation facility in Pearland, Brazoria County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
Cass County Treating Company
This former wood treatment facility in Linden, Cass County, is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
Circle Court Ground Water Plume
The EPA's Web page on this groundwater plume in the Trinity Aquifer, parts of which are located within the City of Willow Park and the City of Hudson Oaks in Parker County, Texas.
City View Road Groundwater Plume
This groundwater plume in Midland, Midland County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
City of Perryton Well #2
The EPA's web page on this public water well in Perryton, Ochiltree County.
Col-Tex Refinery
This former tank farm and refinery in Colorado City, Mitchell County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
Conroe Creosoting Co.
The EPA's web page on this former wood treatment facility in Conroe, Montgomery County.
Cox Road Dump Site
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required at this waste disposal landfill in Dayton, Liberty County. The site was referred to the Voluntary Cleanup Program.
Crim-Hammett
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required at this prior landfill in Henderson, Rusk County.
Crystal Chemical Company
The EPA's web page on this former herbicide plant in Houston, Harris County.
Crystal City Airport
The EPA's web page on this municipal airport in Crystal City, Zavala County.
Dixie Oil Processors, Inc.
The EPA's web page on this former copper recovery and hydrocarbon recovery facility in Friendswood, Harris County.
Donna Reservoir and Canal System
The EPA's web page on this reservoir and canal system in Donna, Hidalgo County.
Dorchester Refining Company
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this oil refinery in Mount Pleasant, Titus County. This site was referred to the Voluntary Cleanup Program.
Double R Plating
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required at this metal refinishing site in Queen City, Cass County.
East 67th Street Ground Water Plume
The EPA's web page on this groundwater plume in Odessa, Ector County.
El Paso Plating Works
No further remedial action for soil is required by Superfund at this metal plating facility in El Paso, El Paso County.
EmChem
This former glycol distillation facility in Pearland, Brazoria County, is being proposed to the state Superfund registry.
Falcon Refinery
The EPA's web page on this former oil refinery in Ingleside, San Patricio County.
Federated Metals
This former magnesium dross/sludge disposal landfill in Houston, Harris County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
First Quality Cylinders
This former aircraft cylinder rebuilder in San Antonio, Bexar County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
Force Road Oil and Vacuum Truck
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this former oil waste disposal and recovery facility in Arcola, Brazoria County. This site was referred to the Voluntary Cleanup Program.
French Limited
The EPA's web page on this former sand mining operation in Crosby, Harris County.
Garland Creosoting
The EPA's web page on this former manufacturer of creosote treated wood products in Longview, Gregg County.
Geneva Industries/Fuhrmann Energy
The EPA's web page on this former petrochemical production facility in Houston, Harris County.
Gulf Metals Industries
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this former landfill that received hazardous substances in Houston, Harris County. This site was referred to the Voluntary Cleanup Program.
Gulfco Marine Maintenance
The EPA's web page on this former barge cleaning and waste disposal facility in Freeport, Brazoria County.
Hagerson Road Drum
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this waste drum disposal facility in DeWalt, Fort Bend County.
Hall Street
This waste disposal/landfill and open field dumping site in Dickinson, Galveston County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
Harkey Road
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this residential property in Pearland, Brazoria County.
Harris (Farley Street)
The EPA's web page on this former landfill in Houston, Harris County.
Harris Sand Pits
This former commercial sand and clay pit in Von Ormy, Bexar County is currently in the Operation and Maintenance phase of the Superfund Program.
Hart Creosoting
No action under the State Superfund Program is needed on this former wood treating facility in Jasper, Jasper County. This site is currently being addressed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Federal Superfund Program.
Hart Creosoting Company
The EPA's web page on this former wood treatment facility in Jasper, Jasper county.
Harvey Industries Inc.
This former television cabinet & circuit board manufacturing facility in Athens, Henderson County is currently in the Operation and Maintenance phase of the State Superfund Program.
Hayes-Sammons Warehouse
No further Superfund remedial activities is needed on this former commercial grade pesticide storage site in Mission, Hidalgo County.
Hi-Yield
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this former pesticide manufacturer in Commerce, Hunt County.
Hicks Field Sewer Corp.
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required at this former treatment plant in Saginaw, Tarrant County.
Higgins Wood Preserving
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required at this former wood treatment facility in Lufkin, Angelina County.  The site was referred to the Voluntary Cleanup Program.
Highlands Acid Pit
The EPA's web page on these former waste pits in Highlands, Harris County.
Houston Lead
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this former lead-acid battery recycling in Houston, Harris County. This site was referred to the Voluntary Cleanup Program.
Houston Scrap
This former lead-acid battery recycling facility in Houston, Harris County is currently in the Operation and Maintenance phase of the Superfund Program.
Hu-Mar Chemicals
This former pesticide/herbicide production facility in Palacios, Matagorda County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
Industrial Road/Industrial Metals
This former lead-acid battery recycling and copper coil salvage facility in Corpus Christi, Nueces County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
International Creosoting
This former wood treatment facility in Beaumont, Jefferson County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
J.C. Pennco Waste Oil Service
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this former waste oil/used drum recycling facility in San Antonio, Bexar County.
JCS Company
This former lead-acid battery reclamation site in Phalba, Van Zandt County is currently in the Operation and Maintenance phase of the Superfund Program.
James Barr Facility
This former vacuum truck waste storage facility in Pearland, Brazoria County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
Jasper Creosoting Company
The EPA's web page on this former wood treatment facility in Jasper, Jasper County.
Jensen Drive Scrap
This former scrap salvage facility in Houston, Harris County is currently in the Operation and Maintenance phase of the Superfund Program.
Jerrell B. Thompson Battery
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required at this former lead-acid battery reclamation site in Phalba, Van Zandt County.
Jones Road Groundwater Plume
Specific information on Jones Road Groundwater Plume in Houston, Harris County.
Jones Road Groundwater Plume
The EPA's web page on this groundwater plume located outside Houston city limits, Harris County.
Kingsbury Metal Finishing
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this former electroplating facility in Kingsbury, Guadalupe County.
Kingsland
Two groundwater plumes in Kingsland, Llano County are being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
Koppers Co., Inc. (Texarkana Plant)
The EPA's web page on this former wood treatment facility in Texarkana, Bowie County.
La Pata Oil Company
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this former waste oil recycling facility in Houston, Harris County.
Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant
The EPA's web page on this former explosive disposal facility in Texarkana, Bowie County.
Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant
The EPA's web page on this former munitions loading and assembly facility in Karnack, Harrison County.
Lyon Property
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required at this wire salvage operation site in London, Kimble County.
MOTCO, Inc.
The EPA's web page on this former waste recycling facility in LaMarque, Galveston County.
Maintech International
This former chemical cleaning and equipment hydroblasting facility in Port Arthur, Jefferson County is currently in the Operation and Maintenance phase of the Superfund Program.
Malone Services Company
The EPA's web page on this former waste oil reclamation facility and hazardous waste disposal wells in Texas City, Galveston County.
Many Diversified Interests, Inc.
The EPA's web page on this former metal casting foundry and spent metal catalyst recycling facility in Houston, Harris County.
Marshall Wood Preserving
This former wood treatment facility in Marshall, Harrison County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
Materials Recovery Enterprises
This former Class I industrial solid waste management facility in Ovalo, Taylor County is currently in the Operation and Maintenance phase of the Superfund Program.
McBay Oil and Gas
This former oil refinery and oil reclamation plant in Grapeland, Houston County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
McNabb Flying Service
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required at this former aerial pesticide applicator company in Alvin, Brazoria County. This site was referred to the Voluntary Cleanup Program.
Melton Kelly Property
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required at this unauthorized metals salvage site in Chatfield, Navarro County.
Midessa Groundwater Plume
The EPA's web page on this groundwater plume in Midessa, Midland County.
Mineral Wool Insulation Mfg. Co.
This former mineral wool manufacturing facility in Rogers, Bell County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
Moss Lake Road Groundwater Plume
This site is a groundwater plume underlying Moss Lake Road in Big Spring, Howard County and is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
Munoz Borrow Pits
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required at this site in Mission, Hidalgo County. This site formerly contained contaminated soil.
Newton Wood Preserving
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this former wood pressure treatment facility in Newton, Newton County. This site was referred to the Voluntary Cleanup Program.
Niagara Chemical
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required at this former pesticide formulation facility in Harlingen, Cameron County.
North Cavalcade Street
The EPA's web page on this former wood treatment facility in Houston, Harris County.
North East Second Street Site (Formerly Attebury Grain)
The EPA's web page on this grain storage facility in Happy, Swisher county. The site was previously referred to as Attebury Grain Storage Facility.
Odessa Chromium 1
The EPA's web page on this groundwater plume in Odessa, Ector County.
Odessa Chromium 2
The EPA's web page on this groundwater plume in Odessa, Ector County.
Old ESCO Manufacturing
The EPA's web page on this former electrical transformer and specialty switch manufacturer in Greenville, Hunt county.
Old Lufkin Creosoting
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this former wood treatment facility in Lufkin, Angelina County. This site was referred to the Voluntary Cleanup Program.
PIP Minerals
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this former drilling mud mixing facility in Liberty, Liberty County.
Palmer Barge Line
The EPA's web page on this former barge and marine equipment cleaning/maintenance facility in Port Arthur, Jefferson County.
Pantex Plant
The EPA's web page on this Army Ordinance Corps. facility in Pantex Village, Carson County.
Patrick Bayou
The EPA's web page on this small bayou in the Houston ship chanel in Deer Park, Harris County.
Permian Chemical Company
No further Superfund remedial activities are needed on this former chemical manufacturer in Odessa, Ector County.
Pesses Chemical Company
The EPA's web page on this former cadmium reclaimation plant in Fort Worth, Tarrant County.
Petro-Chemical System, Inc.
The EPA's web page on this former area of waste oil dumpling along County Road 126 in Liberty, Liberty County.
Phipps Plating
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required at this former metal plating site in San Antonio, Bexar County.
Pioneer Oil Refining Company
This former oil refinery in Somerset, Bexar County is currently in the Operation and Maintenance phase of the Superfund Program.
Poly-Cycle Industries, Inc.
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this former lead-acid battery chips (plastic and rubber) storage & disposal facility in Palmer, Ellis County. This site was referred to the Voluntary Cleanup Program.
Poly-Cycle Industries, Inc., Tecula
This former lead-acid battery recycling facility in Tecula, Cherokee County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
Poly-Cycle Industries, Jacksonville
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this former lead-acid battery chips recycler and lead recovery facility in Jacksonville, Cherokee County.
Precision Machine and Supply
This former chrome plating and machine shop in Odessa, Ector County is currently in the Operation and Maintenance phase of the Superfund Program.
Process Instrumentation and Electrical (PIE)
This former chromium plating facility in Odessa, Ector County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
R & H Oil Company
The EPA's web page on this former oil refinery and gasoline blending facility in San Antonio, Bexar County.
RSR Corp.
The EPA's web page on this former smelter in West Dallas, Dallas County.
Rio Grande Refinery I
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this former refinery in Sour Lake, Hardin County.
Rio Grande Refinery II
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this former transformer storage area in Sour Lake, Hardin County.
Rockwool Industries, Inc.
The EPA's web page on this former mineral wool insulation manufacturer in Belton, Bell County.
Rogers Delinted Cottonseed - Colorado City
This former cottonseed delinting processing facility in Colorado City, Mitchell County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
Rogers Delinted Cottonseed - Farmersville
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required at this former cottonseed delinting processing site in Farmersville, Collin County.
Sampson Horrice
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required at this former gravel pit/landfill in which hazardous & solid waste was disposed in Dallas, Dallas County.
San Angelo Electric Service Company (SESCO)
This former electrical transformer builder, service, and repair facility in San Angelo, Tom Green County is being remediated under the Voluntary Cleanup Program. No further Superfund environmental response is needed.
San Jacinto River Waste Pits
The EPA placed this site in Harris County on the National Priorities List, making it eligible for Superfund cleanup. This site was once used to dispose of paper-mill sludge beside the San Jacinto River near the IH 10 bridge. Since the site was abandoned, the river has eroded into portions of the former waste pits.
Sandy Beach Road Groundwater Plume
The EPA's web page on this groundwater plume in Pelican Bay, Azle, and unincorporated areas of, Tarrant County.
Shelby Wood Specialty, Inc.
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required at this former wood treatment facility in Tenaha, Shelby County. This site was referred to the Voluntary Cleanup Program.
Sheridan Disposal Services
The EPA's web page on this former waste oil and solvent disposal facility in Hempstead, Waller County.
Sherman Foundry
This former cast iron foundry in Sherman, Grayson County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
Sikes Disposal Pits
The EPA's web page on this former chemical waste disposal facility in Crosby, Harris County.
Sol Lynn Industrial Transformers
The EPA's web page on this former metals reclaimation facility in Houston, Harris County.
Solvent Recovery Services
No further State Superfund action is needed on this former solvent recovery facility in Arcola, Fort Bend County.
Sonics International, Inc.
These former industrial waste injection wells in Ranger, Eastland County are currently in the Operation and Maintenance phase of the Superfund Program.
South Cavalcade Street
The EPA's web page on this former wood treatment site in Houston, Harris County.
South Texas Solvents
No further State Superfund action is needed on this former solvent recovery facility in Banquete, Nueces County.
Spector Salvage Yard
This former military surplus and chemical salvage yard in Orange, Orange County is currently in the Operation and Maintenance phase of the Superfund Program.
Sprague Road
The EPA's web page on this groundwater plume in Odessa, Ector County.
Star Lake Canal
The EPA's web page on these two industrial canals in Port Neches, Jefferson County.
State Highway 123 PCE Plume
This groundwater plume in San Marcos, Hays County is currently in the Operation and Maintenance phase of the Superfund Program.
State Marine
No State Superfund action is needed on this former barge cleaning facility in Port Arthur, Jefferson County. This site is currently being addressed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
State Marine of Port Arthur
The EPA's web page on this former barge cleaning facility in Port Arthur, Jefferson County.
State Road 114 Groundwater Plume
The EPA's web page on this groundwater plume in Levelland, Hockley County.
Stewco, Inc.
The EPA's web page on this former truck cleaning facility in Waskom, Harrison County.
Stoller Chemical Company
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this former hazardous waste container storage facility in Plainview, Hale County.
Tenaha Wood Treating
This former wood treatment facility in Tenaha, Shelby County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
Tex Tin Corp.
The EPA's web page on this former tin smelter in Texas City, Galveston County.
Texarkana Wood Preserving Co
The EPA's web page on this former wood treatment facility in Texarkana, Bowie County.
Texas American Oil
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this former waste oil recycling facility in Midlothian, Ellis County.
Thompson Hayward Chemical Co.
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this former pesticide formulating facility in Munday, Knox County. This site was referred to the Voluntary Cleanup Program.
Toups
This former wood treatment facility in Sour Lake, Hardin County is currently in the Operation and Maintenance phase of the Superfund Program.
Triangle Chemical Co.
The EPA's web page on this former chemical mixing facility in Bridge City, Orange County.
Tricon America, Inc.
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this former aluminum and zinc smelting and casting facility in Crowley, Tarrant County.
Tucker Oil Refinery/Clinton Manges Oil & Refining Company
This dismantled oil refinery in Tucker, Anderson County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
U.S. Oil Recovery
The EPA's web page on this former Waste Water Treatment Plant in Pasadena, Harris County.
United Creosoting Co.
The EPA's web page on this former wood treatment facility in Conroe, Montgomery County.
Unnamed Plating
This former metals processing & recovery facility in El Paso, El Paso County is currently in the Operation and Maintenance phase of the Superfund Program.
Van Der Horst
The EPA's web page on this former chrome and iron plating facility in Terrell, Kaufman County.
Voda Petroleum, Inc.
This former waste oil recycling facility in Clarksville City, Gregg County is currently in the Operation and Maintenance phase of the Superfund Program.
Waste Oil Tank Service
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this former waste oil collection and transfer facility in Houston, Harris County.
West County Road 112, Midland, TX
Information on the chromium contamination in the groundwater near West County Road 112, Midland, TX.
Woodward Industries, Inc.
This former wood treatment facility in Nacogdoches, Nacogdoches County is being addressed under the State Superfund Program.
Wortham Lead Salvage
No further Superfund environmental response actions are required on this former lead-acid battery recycler and lead salvage facility in Mabank, Henderson County.

 

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List of Railroad Commission VCP and Brownfield Sites

 http://www.rrc.state.tx.us/oil-gas/environmental-cleanup-programs/site-remediation/voluntary-cleanup-program/list-of-railroad-commission-vcp-and-brownfield-sites-102013/

 

TBA or VCPSite #CountySite AddressSize of Site in AcresLatitudeLongitudeStatusDate Closed
Brownfield 1101 Chambers FM 563 at Turtle Bayou, Anahuac 522 29.8333 -94.6708 Accepted
Brownfield 1201 Haskell 1100 McCarty Ave, Rule 0.068 33.1783 -99.89 Closed 8/20/2012
Brownfield 1301 Brazoria 4850 Old Chocolate Bayou Rd, Pearland 11.5 29.516928 -95.348286 Accepted
Brownfield 1302 Victoria Highway 59, Victoria 200 28.78191 -96.94838 Accepted
Brownfield 1303 Galveston Settegast Road, Galveston 207 29.2299326 -94.9268985 Accepted
Brownfield 1401 Matagorda County Road 408, Markham 2825.659 29.01663 -96.03342 Accepted
Brownfield 4001 Aransas 5561 Hwy 35 North, Fulton 4.394 28.1084 -97.0296 Accepted
Brownfield 4002 Aransas 5652 FM 1781, Rockport 86 28.1128 -97.04 Closed 6/28/2004
Brownfield 4003 Andrews East Mustang Dr, Andrews 4 32.316 -102.5306 Closed 3/31/2006
Brownfield 5001 Nueces 1151 E. Main Avenue, Robstown 30 27.79279 -97.65214 Closed 6/27/2008
Brownfield 5003 Harris 11755 - 11825 Almeda Rd, Houston 93 29.6446 -95.4023 Accepted
Brownfield 5004 Gregg 1116 - 1208 South Commerce St, Kilgore 5.87 32.3786 -94.88 Closed 12/18/2009
Brownfield 5005 Gregg Laird Av ( New City Block 38 Lot 1A), Kilgore 15.311 32.3789 -94.8792 Closed 11/10/2007
Brownfield 5006 Gregg Memorial St. (New City Block 45 Lot 5), Kilgore 27.309 32.3754 -94.8825 Closed 1/15/2009
Brownfield 5007 Harris 815 Dorsett St, Houston 14.9399 29.77457 -95.28695 Accepted
Brownfield 6001 Galveston Near S.E. Corner of Hwy 3 & Benoist Rd, Dickinson 121 29.4424 -95.0346 Accepted
Brownfield 6002 Galveston North of FM 517, East of Briar Hollow Dr, Dickinson 30 29.4694 -95.0222 Closed 4/28/2008
Brownfield 6004 Montgomery 1328 FM 1488, Conroe 1643.17 30.2261 -95.495 Closed 10/5/2009
Brownfield 7001 Gregg 1811 US Hwy 259 N, Kilgore 7.01 32.3991 -94.8551 Closed 6/9/2007
Brownfield 7002 Andrews Block 9, Section 5, Andrews 0.7 32.21701 -102.6243 Closed 3/2/2007
Brownfield 7003 Refugio 602 E. Empresario St, Refugio 2.56 28.2945 -97.27 Accepted
Brownfield 8001 Harris NW of Genoa-Red Bluff Rd. & Red Bluff Rd, Pasadena 108.5184 29.6358 -95.1225 Accepted
Brownfield 8002 Kleberg E. Santa Gertrudis Rd. ( FM 2045), Kingsville 28.69 27.52163 -97.80678 Closed 7/31/2013
Brownfield 8003 Lubbock IH 27 & Yucca Lane, Lubbock 15 33.692647 -101.833368 Closed 5/19/2009
Brownfield 9001 Gregg 331 North Longview Street, Kilgore 7.482 32.391 -94.876883 Closed 7/28/2009
Brownfield 9002 Nueces 302 International Drive, Corpus Christi 0.92 27.78194 -97.5 Accepted
Brownfield 9003 Dimmit FM 2367, Carrizo Springs 34 28.51011 -99.87835 Closed 5/12/2009
Brownfield 9004 Gregg 500 Allison St., Gladewater 3.739 32.536 -94.938 Accepted
VCP 1001 Gregg 213-217 S. Kilgore Street, Kilgore 0.683286 32.3849 -94.876666 Closed 10/22/2012
VCP 10001 Harris E & W of Hwy 288 between Reed Rd and Belfort Ave, Houston 40.767 29.66365 -95.386255 Accepted
VCP 10002 Nueces Waldron Rd & Knickerbocker St, Corpus Christi 13.67 27.65805 -97.2813 Accepted
VCP 11001 Fort Bend 1,250 ft NW of Manor & Oilfield Rd, Sugar Land 24.43 29.5443611 -95.5865277 Accepted
VCP 11002 Fort Bend N of Oilfield Rd, Sugar Land 70.4 29.555722 -95.587333 Accepted
VCP 11003 Harris Sabinal River Court, Cypress 2.1 29.9174 -95.69487 Accepted
VCP 12001 Brazoria 4000 Technology Drive, Angleton 119 29.208549 -95.44361 Accepted
VCP 12002 Fort Bend South of Scenic Rivers Drive, Sugar Land 15 29.5442 -95.59154 Accepted
VCP 12003 Brazos Outlot 5 (Lot 2R-1), Lot 1 - Highpoint Dr, Bryan 1.995 30.666 -96.3276 Closed 7/23/2012
VCP 12004 Galveston 2920 Todd Rd, Galveston 0.5 29.3165361 -94.7979666 Accepted
VCP 12005 Galveston 2920 Todd Rd, Galveston 0.1 29.317552 -94.801263 Accepted
VCP 12006 Fort Bend Sugar Land Ranch, Sugar Land 41.6 29.54888 -95.5925 Accepted
VCP 12007 Fort Bend Sugar Land Ranch, Sugar Land 31 29.54964 -95.59 Accepted
VCP 13001 Fort Bend Scenic Rivers Drive, Sugar Land 11.825 29.5497222222222 -95.5897222222222 Closed 4/2/2013
VCP 13002 Harris Lighthouse Lake Lane, Humble 5 29.99775 -95.143194 Accepted
VCP 13003 Harris Grant Road at Telge, Houston 0.44 30.0226 -95.65019 Accepted
VCP 13004 Harris 0.13 miles S Buffalo Speedway & W Belfort, Houston 8.674 29.6694527777778 -95.4234666666667 Closed 9/5/2013
VCP 14001 Harris .19 mile S of Buffalo Speedway & W. Belfort, Houston 35 29.6673972222222 -95.4237555555556 Accepted
VCP 14002 Fort Bend Off Katy-Fulshear Rd, Fulshear 6 29.7249166666667 -95.8841666666667 Accepted
VCP 14003 Fort Bend SW of Heritage Colony Drive and Alpine Circle, Missouri City 8.7 29.5575833333333 -95.5788694444444 Accepted
VCP 14004 Harris 300 Block North Richey,, Pasadena 4.5 29.715825 -95.2216722222222 Accepted
VCP 14005 Victoria 2905 U.S. HWY 59, Victoria 3.17 28.7756944444444 -96.9703333333333 Accepted
VCP 14006 Harris 6938 Fairbanks N. Houston Rd, Houston 4.523 29.870025 -95.524173 Accepted
VCP 14007 Jefferson 2701 Spur 136 Rd, Port Neches 2 29.9623361111111 -93.9417722222222 Accepted
VCP 14008 Chambers 9840 FM 563, Wallisville 0.3917 29.8824722222222 -94.6946666666667 Accepted
VCP 14009 Harris Southeast of West Bellfort and Lakes of 610 Drive, Houston 10 29.6709833333333 -95.417225 Accepted
VCP 14010 Galveston Intersection of Kingston Beach Rd & TX-87, Port Bolivar 5 29.3958055555556 -94.7326111111111 Closed 6/4/2014
VCP 14011 Galveston TX-108, Bolivar 0.338 29.3946333333333 -94.7332888888889 Closed 11/20/2014
VCP 14012 Harris Near 12814 Boudreaux Road, Tomball 21.26 30.0574472222222 -95.6146527777778 Accepted
VCP 14013 Harris Gleannloch Forest Road, Spring 3.5869 30.036101 -95.563508 Closed 5/23/2014
VCP 14014 Montgomery 24327 I-45 Frontage Rd, Spring 0.8705 30.1147583333333 -95.4470666666667 Accepted
VCP 14015 Montgomery 24327 I-45 Frontage Road, Spring 0.8705 30.1129083333333 -94.4435694444444 Accepted
VCP 15001 Denton SWC of Cleveland Gibbs Road and Sam Lee Lane property not currtly addressed, Roanoke 65.926 33.0280555555556 -97.2544444444444 Accepted
VCP 20000 Gregg 1201 Stone St., Kilgore 19.4 32.3931 -94.8653 Closed 8/26/2005
VCP 30001 Parker 1302 North Main St, Springtown 35.76 32.9848 -97.6843 Closed 3/2/2004
VCP 30002 Harris 12601 State Hwy 249, Houston 2.2027 29.9108 -95.4811 Closed 10/17/2011
VCP 30003 Harris 5.624 acre tract off of Boudreaux Rd, Tomball 6 30.059 -95.598 Closed 12/15/2003
VCP 30004 Harris Intersection Fannin St & Holmes Rd/610 Business Pa, Houston 24.2592 29.665 -95.4044 Closed 5/2/2005
VCP 30005 Fort Bend Harlem Rd & FM 1093 (Westheimer Rd), Richmond 557 29.7027 -95.7194 Closed 9/28/2006
VCP 30006 Potter no street address, Masterson 1.43 35.5602 -101.9712 Closed 10/3/2005
VCP 30007 Potter no street address, Masterson 0.92 35.6183 -102.0145 Closed 10/3/2005
VCP 30008 Harris Atascacita & Will Clayton Blvd, Humble 2.7 29.9797 -95.2185 Closed 3/7/2007
VCP 30009 Moore no street address, Masterson 0.92 35.632 -102.1262 Closed 3/22/2006
VCP 30010 Potter no street address, Masterson 5.09 35.619 -102.0596 Closed 9/19/2006
VCP 30011 Potter no street address, 0.51 35.619 -101.9926 Closed 3/22/2007
VCP 30012 Hartley no street address, Masterson 5.74 35.654 -102.1773 Closed 12/19/2006
VCP 30013 Harris SE corner Old Main St & Buffalo Speedway, Houston 75.12 29.6695 -95.4259 Accepted
VCP 30014 Moore no street address, Masterson 1.61 35.6584 -101.7265 Closed 1/4/2008
VCP 30015 Moore no street address, Masterson 1.44 35.6363 -101.7172 Accepted
VCP 30016 Potter no street address, Masterson 3.45 35.6367 -101.7163 Closed 2/12/2009
VCP 30017 Harris 3605-3651 Willowbend Blvd, Houston 1.1782 29.663 -95.4345 Closed 2/21/2008
VCP 40001 Fort Bend Intersection of Steep Bank Creek & Oilfield Rd, Sugar Land 142.57 29.5554 -95.5788 Closed 1/9/2006
VCP 40002 Hidalgo .5 miles north of US 83, La Joya 3.98 26.2486 -98.4589 Closed 8/19/2005
VCP 40003 Harris 1255 W. Bay Area Blvd, Webster 25 29.5382 -95.1434 Closed 5/9/2008
VCP 40004 Atascosa 1880 FM 2924 West, Karnes City 20 28.8146 -98.1877 Closed 6/26/2007
VCP 40005 Harris NEC Bammel-North Houston Rd & N Sam Houston Pkwy, Houston 81.4 29.9406 -95.4953 Closed 5/19/2006
VCP 40006 Montgomery North of FM 242/1485 & Gulf Coast Rd, Conroe 600 30.2247 -95.3414 Closed 6/23/2006
VCP 40007 Moore 9303 W. CIG Rd, Masterson 1.23 35.6386 -101.9607 Closed 3/22/2006
VCP 40008 Harris N. Holmes Rd, W. of Kirby Dr & E. of S. Main, Houston 33 29.6644 -95.4272 Accepted
VCP 40009 Harris N. Holmes Rd, W. of Kirby Dr & E. of S. Main, Houston 100 29.665 -95.4308 Accepted
VCP 40010 Parker 1302 North Main, Springtown 36 32.9846 -97.6843 Closed 7/7/2006
VCP 40011 Harris 3400 Block of Atascocita Rd, Humble 76.361 29.9772 -95.2234 Closed 5/23/2005
VCP 40012 Moore No street address, Masterson 3.1 35.6352 -101.8224 Accepted
VCP 40013 Moore No street address, Masterson 1.52 35.641 -101.7735 Closed 2/25/2008
VCP 40014 Hutchinson Pioneer St., Fritch 12.705 35.6322 -101.6203 Accepted
VCP 40015 Moore No street address, Masterson 0.81 35.512 -101.8016 Closed 6/1/2006
VCP 40016 Potter No street address, None 0.52 35.6 -102.0347 Closed 12/19/2006
VCP 40017 Moore No street address, Masterson 2.19 35.6268 -101.8901 Closed 9/30/2009
VCP 40018 Jefferson 12 acres near intersection of W. Lucas & Authur St, Beaumont 12 30.1128 -94.1453 Closed 4/29/2011
VCP 40019 Nueces Knickerbocker & Waldron Rd, Corpus Christi 13.67 27.6656 -97.2833 Closed 2/18/2010
VCP 40020 Brazoria Jeske Rd (County Rd 922), Manvel 1.438 29.5336 -95.3766 Closed 12/29/2005
VCP 50001 Nueces Waldron Rd & Knickerbocker St, Corpus Christi 23.421 27.6639 -97.2833 Closed 7/1/2007
VCP 50002 Moore 4.4 miles NE of Masterson, Masterson 0.92 35.6899 -101.9172 Closed 11/25/2008
VCP 50003 Potter 1/3 mile E of Fain Gas Plant, off Highway 87/287, Masterson 1.627 35.53957 -101.888936 Closed 3/14/2011
VCP 50004 Potter No street address, None 0.067 35.6797 -101.8514 Closed 9/15/2006
VCP 50005 Moore Section 52 Block 6-T, NA 1.75 35.68 -101.8503 Closed 8/8/2007
VCP 60001 Nueces Hwy 358 & Flour Bluff Dr, Corpus Christi 0.539 27.6743 -97.2989 Closed 5/21/2009
VCP 60002 Nueces Hwy 358 & Flour Bluff Dr, Corpus Christi 11.572 27.6722 -97.3006 Closed 3/11/2009
VCP 60003 Hidalgo NW Quadrant of Trenton & McColl Rd, Edinburg 1.063 26.2683 -98.2037 Closed 10/6/2008
VCP 60004 Nueces 5202 Crosstown Expwy, Corpus Christi 2.988 27.7364 -97.4333 Closed 6/30/2010
VCP 60005 Nueces 3501 Carbon Plant Rd, Corpus Christi 55 27.8425 -97.5578 Closed 9/19/2006
VCP 60006 Fort Bend Sugar Land Ranch, Sugar Land 253.65 29.5481 -95.5786 Closed 4/23/2010
VCP 60007 Fort Bend Manor & Oil Field Rd, Missouri City 34.62 29.5506 -95.585 Accepted
VCP 60008 Harris 92 acres SW of intersection Bammel Rd & Hardy Toll, Houston 2.6564 30.0159 -95.4079 Closed 4/9/2009
VCP 60009 Bexar NW corner Mauermann Rd & Pleasanton Rd, San Antonio 1227 29.2918 -98.5136 Closed 7/1/2008
VCP 60010 Montgomery Gulf Coast Rd, Conroe 43.95 30.2258 -95.3525 Closed 3/28/2011
VCP 70001 Fayette 1.5 miles N. of SH 71, West Point 1.1 29.9292 -97.065 Closed 1/3/2008
VCP 70002 Harris 10890 Almeda Rd, Houston 1.7 29.6614 -95.4008 Closed 11/12/2007
VCP 70003 Nueces I-37, E of Southern Minerals Rd, Corpus Christi 56 27.8086 -97.4993 Closed 8/21/2008
VCP 70004 Harris West Side of Fannin St, South of Holmes Rd, Houston 24.2592 29.6651 -95.4041 Closed 7/23/2007
VCP 70005 Bexar 1555 Mauermann Rd., San Antonio 163.24 29.2963 -98.5242 Closed 7/1/2008
VCP 70006 Palo Pinto Kiowa Trail Road, Graham 546 32.9079 -98.4771 Closed 8/31/2009
VCP 70007 Montgomery Between FM 1486 & FM 149, Magnolia 1.72 30.2752 -95.7115 Closed 3/22/2010
VCP 70008 Galveston SW corner of HWY 96 & HWY 146, League City 8.39 29.5112 -95.0098 Closed 8/31/2009
VCP 70009 Harris Fannin St south of Holmes Rd, Houston 11 29.6626 -95.4025 Accepted
VCP 70010 Harris Fannin St south of Holmes Rd, Houston 23.88 29.665 -95.4046 Accepted
VCP 70011 Harris Fannin St south of Holmes Rd, Houston 8 29.6635 -95.4049 Accepted
VCP 80001 Harris I45 South, 0.25 miles S. of Bay Area Blvd, Webster 20.5 29.5362 -95.1401 Closed 5/9/2008
VCP 80002 Fort Bend Steep Bank Creek & Oilfield Rd, Sugar Land 14.47 29.551 -95.5802 Accepted
VCP 80003 Harris E of T.C. Jester Blvd, 3,150 ft. N of Spears Rd, Houston 12.46 29.9803 -95.456 Closed 12/2/2014
VCP 80004 Harris El Dorado at Clear Lake Blvd, Houston 411 29.6133 -95.1256 Closed 10/3/2008
VCP 80005 Harris 1561 Bracher Lane, Houston 3.516 29.798972 -95.509778 Closed 1/11/2012
VCP 80006 Harris Between FM 1960 & Will Clayton Pkwy, Humble 9.024 29.98444 -95.2208 Closed 7/6/2009
VCP 80007 Harris 10.6 Acres N of Will Clayton Pkwy., Humble 10.6 29.98218 -95.223247 Closed 7/10/2009
VCP 90001 Bexar 14901 State Highway 16 South, San Antonio 30 29.27388 -98.57472 Closed 9/30/2009
VCP 90002 Harris Southeast of Buffalo Speedway and West Belfort St, Houston 12 29.670833 -95.42333 Closed 3/8/2013
VCP 90003 Harris SE of Buffalo Speedway & West Bellfort St, Houston 3 29.67094 -95.42335 Closed 10/16/2012
VCP 90004 Galveston NW Corner of FM 646 and 11th St, Santa Fe 4.75 29.3755 -95.0905 Closed 7/9/2010
VCP 90005 Fort Bend Manor Rd, Sugar Land 50.08 29.5434 -95.5844 Accepted
VCP 90006 Fort Bend Manor Rd, Sugar Land 16.8433 29.5555 -95.59472 Accepted


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The Texas Tribune

Environmental Problems And Policies

http://www.texastribune.org/tribpedia/environmental-problems-and-policies/

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Environment Texas

Preserving Texas

http://www.environmenttexas.org/programs/txe/preserving-texas


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 Deforestation in Texas

 I find it ironic that some who complain about pine plantations say little about the deforestation that is occurring in the South. The following graphs cover the years from 1907 to 1997 (a 90 year period). In the last fifty years, Texas has lost 25% of their forest (2.4 million ha). We have increased the amount of pine plantations and now 17% of the wooded lands in Texas are plantations. This percentage would be much less if we had the same amount of woodlands as present in 1907. But, some people seem more concerned about landowners planting pine trees on farmland than they are about and landowners buying land and causing deforestation.

 https://fp.auburn.edu/sfws/sfnmc/class/distinguished/sld082.htm

 

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Commentary on Drilling, Drought, and Environmental Issues in South Texas and Beyond

 http://efstexas.blogspot.com/

 

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Rick Perry’s Texas Is First — Pollution

 

 

- Ranks #1 with the highest overall pollution rate

- Worst environmental record in the United States

- Ranks #1 in adults under probation 

- Ranks #4 in adults under correctional control

- Texas ranks #4 in population living below the poverty line (17.2 %)



http://thenewcivilrightsmovement.com/rick-perrys-texas-is-1-in-illiteracy-repeat-teen-births-pollution/politics/2011/10/07/27398

ChemicalsProduction in the chemical sector of Texas's economy accounts for nearly one-fifth of the state's manufacturing output and is the state's second largest export sector, behind the petroleum industry. Products and goods manufactured include petrochemicals, dyes, pigments, alcohol and industrial gases.


Read more : http://www.ehow.com/info_8485741_manufactured-goods-texas.html


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 What Are the Manufactured Goods of Texas?


Texas leads all U.S. states in the value of its shipments and exports. It follows only California in the number of workers employed in manufacturing. Texas is best known for its petroleum refining and chemical industries, according to the state Office of Economic Development and Tourism, but major Texas manufacturing industries make semiconductors, computer equipment, machinery, fabricated metal, motor vehicles and aerospace products.

 

From the Oil and Gas Industries

Petroleum refining comprises more than one-quarter of Texas's total manufacturing output. This industry accounts for the state's largest export sector, with the main goods consisting of natural gas, propane and refined oils. In addition, the petroleum industry is intertwined with the state's chemical manufacturing sector, as many base materials are derived from petroleum products.

Chemicals

Production in the chemical sector of Texas's economy accounts for nearly one-fifth of the state's manufacturing output and is the state's second largest export sector, behind the petroleum industry. Products and goods manufactured include petrochemicals, dyes, pigments, alcohol and industrial gases.


Read more : http://www.ehow.com/info_8485741_manufactured-goods-texas.html

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Many manufactured goods in Texas, come from petroleum products. In the next part of this report, we will detail the amount of environmental damage, different oil and mining companies, are doing to the planet.

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Part 2: Texas vs BP oil 

 

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Chapter 8: Texas vs BP oil 

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BP Texas Refinery Had Huge Toxic Release Just Before Gulf Blowout

 July 2, 2010

 

 TEXAS CITY, TEXAS -- Two weeks before the blowout in the Gulf of Mexico, the huge, trouble-plagued BP refinery in this coastal town spewed tens of thousands of pounds of toxic chemicals into the skies.

 The release from the BP facility here began April 6 and lasted 40 days. It stemmed from the company's decision to keep producing and selling gasoline while it attempted repairs on a key piece of equipment, according to BP officials and Texas regulators.

BP says it failed to detect the extent of the emissions for several weeks. It discovered the scope of the problem only after analyzing data from a monitor that measures emissions from a flare 300 feet above the ground that was supposed to incinerate the toxic chemicals.

The company now estimates that 538,000 pounds of chemicals escaped from the refinery while it was replacing the equipment. These included 17,000 pounds of benzene, a known carcinogen; 37,000 pounds of nitrogen oxides, which contribute to respiratory problems; and 186,000 pounds of carbon monoxide.

It is unclear whether the pollutants harmed the health of Texas City residents, but the amount of chemicals far exceeds the limits set by Texas and other states.
For years, the BP refinery in this town of 44,000 has been among the company's most dangerous and pollution-prone operations. A 2005 explosion killed 15 workers; four more workers have died in accidents since then. Last year, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration fined the company $87 million for failing to address safety problems that caused the 2005 blast.

 http://www.propublica.org/article/bp-texas-refinery-had-huge-toxic-release-just-before-gulf-blowout

-------------------------

 

 Texas Jury Declines to Award Damages in $10B Toxic Flaring Case

  October 29, 2013


In the first test case in a series of actions involving about 48,000 plaintiffs, a Texas jury declined to award damages in an action against Defendant BP Products North America’s Texas City Refinery, despite finding that the refinery had negligently flared approximately 500,000 pounds of noxious chemicals. See In re: MDL Litig. regarding Texas City Refinery Ultracracker Emission, No. 10-UC-0001 (56th Jud. Dist. Tex. Oct. 10, 2013)



Plaintiffs brought property damage and personal injury claims, alleging that BP surreptitiously vented 19 different toxic chemicals during an extended emission period from April to May 2010. Although BP later disclosed to state and federal regulators that it flared the chemicals, Plaintiffs claimed that BP understated the significance of the event. Plaintiffs sought $200,000 each plus $10 billion in punitive damages to be donated to charity for property damage. The jury found that BP had flared chemicals, but declined to award damages.
 http://www.natlawreview.com/article/texas-jury-declines-to-award-damages-10b-toxic-flaring-case
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Jury absolves BP in gas leak trial

 
October 10, 2013
Company hails victory in Texas City case; other plaintiffs plan to continue suits over fumes
 
 
GALVESTON — A massive release of noxious gas from a former BP refinery in Texas City caused no harm or nuisance to three people who lived nearby, a Galveston County jury said Thursday.

The jury of eight women and four men deliberated for about two days and three hours before absolving BP of any wrongdoing in a 2010 release of toxic gases that continued for at least 40 days.

The verdict, which came after a monthlong trial, is a test case for an estimated 48,000 other claims brought by residents near the plant in scores of other lawsuits.
"Today's verdict affirms BP's view that no one suffered any injury as a result of the flaring of the BP Ultracracker flare during April and May 2010," BP spokesman Scott Dean said. "Armed with the knowledge gleaned from this case and this important jury verdict, the company will immediately begin to prepare for any additional proceedings involving other plaintiffs."

Tony Buzbee, the attorney for the three residents who said they were harmed by the release, said he was surprised by the verdict.
"But I respect juries," Buzbee said. "This was only the first one of the test cases. We learned some things. We will gear up and try another one in a couple of months."

Jurors said BP was persuasive in arguing that the illnesses claimed by the three plaintiffs were common afflictions unrelated to the release.
 

http://www.chron.com/business/article/Jury-absolves-BP-in-gas-leak-trial-4884883.php


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Chapter 9: DuPont & BP Oil

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BP Partners with Dupont to Produce Fuel to Rival Ethanol

 BP Plc and DuPont Co. announced a joint venture to overhaul an ethanol plant in Minnesota to make another type of alternative fuel called biobutanol. 

 

 http://www.dailyenergyreport.com/bp-partners-with-dupont-to-produce-fuel-to-rival-ethanol/

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 BP not in step with industry on renewable fuel regulations
BP not in step with industry on renewable fuel regulations - See more at: http://congress.org/2013/06/24/bp-not-in-step-with-industry-on-renewable-fuel-regulations/#sthash.p3ed3XED.dpuf

As Congress considers scaling back or abolishing U.S. rules that mandate the use of renewable fuels, it has the full-throated support of the petroleum industry ? with one major exception.
BP, one of the world’s biggest oil companies by revenue, is part of a joint venture with DuPont that is set to start producing a new alternative fuel by the end of the year. In order to preserve a market for that fuel, its officials are busy in Washington trying to persuade lawmakers that the current system doesn’t need an overhaul.
“They don’t need to change the law,” Paul Beckwith, chief executive of the venture, Butamax Advanced Biofuels of Wilmington, Del., said in an interview. The program “as it’s currently configured is working, and there are good opportunities for increasing renewable levels beyond where they are today.”
The Renewable Fuel Standard, or RFS, dates in its current form to 2007, when concerns about dependence on overseas oil and a desire to curb the use of fossil fuels induced Congress to set quotas for the use of alternatives to gasoline or diesel, such as ethanol and biodiesel.
Under the law, refiners such as Exxon Mobil must blend a certain amount of renewable fuels into their gasoline each year, with their contribution determined by their share of the fuel market. The Environmental Protection Agency and renewable-fuel producers say the mandate spurs production of U.S.-made fuels, helps corn farmers and cuts carbon emissions by replacing gasoline.
The efforts of BP and Wilmington, Del.-based DuPont, which together spent $13.8 million on lobbying in 2012, show the fissures in the business community over the future of the rules, and the difficult path any overhaul must tread. A panel of the House Energy and Commerce Committee is set to hold a hearing on the program, as Republicans such as Rep. Bob Goodlatte (Va.) push to scrap it.
- See more at: http://congress.org/2013/06/24/bp-not-in-step-with-industry-on-renewable-fuel-regulations/#sthash.p3ed3XED.dpuf
 June 24, 2013 | Washington Post

As Congress considers scaling back or abolishing U.S. rules that mandate the use of renewable fuels, it has the full-throated support of the petroleum industry ?**** with one major exception.

BP, one of the world’s biggest oil companies by revenue, is part of a joint venture with DuPont that is set to start producing a new alternative fuel by the end of the year. In order to preserve a market for that fuel, its officials are busy in Washington trying to persuade lawmakers that the current system doesn’t need an overhaul.

“They don’t need to change the law,” Paul Beckwith, chief executive of the venture, Butamax Advanced Biofuels of Wilmington, Del., said in an interview. The program “as it’s currently configured is working, and there are good opportunities for increasing renewable levels beyond where they are today.”

The Renewable Fuel Standard, or RFS, dates in its current form to 2007, when concerns about dependence on overseas oil and a desire to curb the use of fossil fuels induced Congress to set quotas for the use of alternatives to gasoline or diesel, such as ethanol and biodiesel.

Under the law, refiners such as Exxon Mobil must blend a certain amount of renewable fuels into their gasoline each year, with their contribution determined by their share of the fuel market. The Environmental Protection Agency and renewable-fuel producers say the mandate spurs production of U.S.-made fuels, helps corn farmers and cuts carbon emissions by replacing gasoline.

The efforts of BP and Wilmington, Del.-based DuPont, which together spent $13.8 million on lobbying in 2012, show the fissures in the business community over the future of the rules, and the difficult path any overhaul must tread. A panel of the House Energy and Commerce Committee is set to hold a hearing on the program, as Republicans such as Rep. Bob Goodlatte (Va.) push to scrap it.










London-based BP, which in the United States has the capacity to refine 725,000 barrels of crude oil a day, is taking a slightly different position than the industry trade groups. It is advocating for regulatory mending by the EPA, not a legislated end.
London-based BP, which in the United States has the capacity to refine 725,000 barrels of crude oil a day, is taking a slightly different position than the industry trade groups. It is advocating for regulatory mending by the EPA, not a legislated end. - See more at: http://congress.org/2013/06/24/bp-not-in-step-with-industry-on-renewable-fuel-regulations/#sthash.p3ed3XED.dpuf

 http://congress.org/2013/06/24/bp-not-in-step-with-industry-on-renewable-fuel-regulations/
London-based BP, which in the United States has the capacity to refine 725,000 barrels of crude oil a day, is taking a slightly different position than the industry trade groups. It is advocating for regulatory mending by the EPA, not a legislated end. - See more at: http://congress.org/2013/06/24/bp-not-in-step-with-industry-on-renewable-fuel-regulations/#sthash.p3ed3XED.dpuf

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BP-DuPont Biofuels JV Takes Gevo to Court

 

Butamax Advanced Biofuels (Butamax) is a Delaware-based joint venture between BP and DuPont formed in 2009 to develop biobutanol.

Biobutanol is an advanced biofuel which has some important advantages over ethanol, including an energy content closer to that of gasoline and the capacity to create higher blend concentrations with gasoline.

Butamax owns U.S. Patent No. 7,851,188, entitled “Fermentive production of four carbon alcohols” (’188 Patent).  The ’188 Patent is directed to Butamax’s biobutanol production technology and recombinant microbial host cells that produce the biofuel.



Last month Butamax sued Gevo, an Englewood, Colorado, advanced biofuels company, for infringement of the ’188 Patent.
The complaint (Butamax_Complaint), filed in federal court in Delaware, alleges that Gevo’s isobutanol production pathway infringes the ’188 Patent:

 

 http://www.greenpatentblog.com/2011/02/14/bp-dupont-biofuels-jv-takes-gevo-to-court/
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For DuPont and BP, the Storms Haven't Blown Over

 



Published: January 12, 2006
HURRICANE season came to an official end more than a month ago, but it is continuing to take a toll - and for longer than expected - on the finances of chemical and oil companies.
DuPont and BP warned yesterday that operational disruptions caused by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita would hurt their fourth-quarter results. The hurricanes, which were the most damaging of the 27 named storms last year, hit the Gulf Coast in late August and September.
Physical damage and flooding were intense in some parts of the region, which has a large concentration of energy and petrochemical plants. The biggest challenges were logistical - downed power lines, natural gas shortages and the slow return of workers - and were concentrated in the early part of the fourth quarter, said Ben Dell, an analyst with Sanford C. Bernstein & Company. Most Gulf Coast chemical plants and refineries are back to full operations.
He cautioned, however, that the hurricanes could become a catch-all excuse used by companies reporting profit shortfalls during this earnings season. "Everyone who is going to miss the consensus number is going to throw out the hurricane as an excuse," he said, referring to the analyst earnings estimates used by Wall Street to grade the performances of companies in any given quarter.
In DuPont's case, executives said they were "overly aggressive" in previous predictions about how quickly the company would be able to completely restore the 14 plants it was forced to close in the Gulf of Mexico.

 http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/12/business/12place.html?_r=0

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Biden-Clinton Ally Makes BILLIONS On So-Called “CleanUp;” Oil Spill Looks Intentional


http://my.firedoglake.com/normanb/2010/05/17/biden-clinton-ally-makes-billions-on-so-called-cleanup-oil-spill-looks-intentional/

Executive Vice President & Chief Financial Officer Bradley Bell announced his retirement hours ago from DuPont’s shadow company Nalco, maker of Corexit, which so-called "clean-up workers" are now intentionally spilling into the Gulf of Mexico. Corexit is much more toxic than Petroleum, and its use makes the Dispersant spill much more dangerous to Gulf-of-Mexico life and economy than the Oil spill itself. Bell apparently wants to take the money and run before the criminal acts involved are aired.

Nalco President & CEO J. Erik Frywald just came off a multi-city tour urging venture capitalists to invest in Nalco, because, he said, Oil spills are inevitable, and Nalco stands to make many billions of dollars when one happens, especially in the light Pres. Obama’s stated intent to dramatically increase un-inspected offshore Oil drilling.

Frywald and Nalco have donated to Hillary Clinton’s campaign, and to that of notorious Oil puppet Mary Landrieu, as well as many other dishonest Oily Representatives from Louisiana and elsewhere on the Gulf coast. Frywald is a 27-year veteran at DuPont.

Billions of dollars given to DuPont is exactly what Vice President Biden has worked for his entire career. When a politician accepts a bribe and carries out what the bribing corporation wants, that’s bad. But in a case like Joseph Biden’s, wherein every piece of legislation he has ever introduced profits DuPont, the richest entity in his state, sets Biden apart: He’s by far the most dishonest politician in the history of this country. Biden’s every speech, for nearly 40 years, has focused on maximizing profits for DuPont.


Joseph Biden’s loyalty to DuPont instead of his country has devastated climate and human rights worldwide. Here, today, this column begins its 5-part series titled "How Joe Biden’s Loyalty to DuPont instead of his Country Devastated Climate and Human Rights Worldwide."

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Monsanto and Hillary Clinton's redemptive first act as Secretary of State

 

 

 Hillary Clinton's connections to Monsanto go way back the Rose Law Firm where she worked.  Rose represents Monsanto, Tyson, and Walmart - the world leaders in genetic engineering, animal production and industrialized food.   She received favors there, as did Bill.  In office, Bill's USDA immediately and significantly weakened chicken waste and contamination standards, easing Tyson's poultry-factory expansion, www.financialsense.com/ editorials/engdahl/2006/0828.html, and his USDA head, Espy, was indicted for bribes, money laundering, and much more, with Tyson was the largest corporate offender.  

 


http://www.opednews.com/articles/Monsanto-and-Hillary-Clint-by-Linn-Cohen-Cole-090209-290.html


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Chapter 10: The BP oil spill Investigation

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Who Had Foreknowledge of the Gulf Oil Spill?

 http://thecommonsenseshow.com/2013/03/15/who-had-foreknowledge-of-the-gulf-oil-spill-pt-6/

 

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Goldman Sachs sold $250 million of BP stock before spill

http://www.rawstory.com/rs/2010/06/02/month-oil-spill-goldman-sachs-sold-250-million-bp-stock/

 

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Oil Industry Insider and CFR Member Predicts Gulf Evacuation

 

  June 25, 2010

 http://www.darkpolitricks.com/2010/06/oil-industry-insider-and-cfr-member-predicts-gulf-evacuation/

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 Gulf oil spill: The Halliburton connection

 

 http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/greenspace/2010/04/gulf-oil-spill-the-halliburton-connection.html

Gulf oil spill: The Halliburton connection

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BP oil spill: Ex-Halliburton manager pleads guilty to destroying evidence

 

BP oil spill: Badalamenti is accused of instructing a program manager to delete the results of simulations on centralizers, which could have supported BP's decision to use six instead of 21 centralizers. 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/oct/15/bp-oil-spill-halliburton-manager-guilty-destroying-evidence

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Engineer Arrested in BP Oil Spill Case

 HOUSTON — Two years after the immense BP oil spill that killed 11 people and blackened beaches along the Gulf of Mexico, federal prosecutors have filed the first criminal charges related to the accident, accusing a former company engineer of destroying evidence by deleting text messages that discussed the amount of oil leaking from the stricken well. 

 

 http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/25/business/energy-environment/engineer-charged-in-bp-spill-case.html

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BP emergency plan shows lack of readiness for oil spill

 http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2010-05-17-oil-spill-gulf_N.htm


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Documents Show Early Worries About Safety of Rig

 http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/30/us/30rig.html?pagewanted=all

 

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BP yet to update emergency plan three months after Deepwater Horizon spill

Lawyers say response strategy should have been refiled 15 days after "significant change in worst-case scenario", but BP disagrees



 http://www.theguardian.com/business/2010/aug/15/bp-fails-to-update-oil-spill-emergency-plan

 

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U.S. Opens Criminal Inquiry Into Oil Spill

 

 

 http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/02/us/02spill.html?_r=0

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 BP Not Denying, Just Not Paying Nearly 40,000 Oil Spill Claims

 

 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/08/09/bp-delaying-payment-claims-oil-spill_n_676493.html

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BP’s maximum fine for Gulf of Mexico oil spill is cut by billions

 Friday 16 January 2015
 http://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/jan/16/bp-fine-oil-spill-gulf-mexico-cut-deepwater-horizon
Federal court rules that size of Deepwater Horizon spill in 2010 was smaller than the US government had claimed 
BP will face a maximum fine of $13.7bn under the Clean Water Act for its Gulf of Mexico oil spill in 2010, several billion less than feared.
Federal magistrate Carl Barbier ruled on Thursday that the size of the spill from the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig, the worst offshore spill in US history, was smaller than the government had claimed.

He said that it amounted to 3.19m barrels, well below the government’s estimate of 4.09m barrels, which could have led to penalties of up to $17.6bn.
US-listed shares of BP rose about 1% to $36.20 in after-hours trading as investors worried about the size of potential penalties breathed a sigh of relief.

Under a ruling of gross negligence, Barbier issued in September, BP could be fined a statutory limit of up to $4,300 for each barrel spilled, though he has authority to assign lower penalties.

A simple negligence ruling, which BP sought, caps the maximum fine at $1,100 per barrel.

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BP chose more toxic, less effective oil dispersant manufactured by company with ‘close ties’ to oil giant


http://leisureguy.wordpress.com/2010/05/17/bp-chose-more-toxic-less-effective-oil-dispersant-manufactured-by-company-with-close-ties-to-oil-giant/

 

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The BP Oil Spill May Be Bad, But This Cover Up is Far More Deadly 

 

Dispersants Banned in the United Kingdom

BP is using two products from a line of dispersants manufactured by Nalco: Corexit 9500 and Corexit 9527A .
 Corexit products were removed from a list of approved treatments for oil spills in the U.K. more than a decade ago after the agents were linked with human health problems including respiratory, neurologic, liver, kidney and blood disorders, and "harmful effects" on sea life.
Corexit is on the EPA's list of approved chemical dispersants, and BP could have chosen any one from the list. The EPA's table comparing toxicity and effectiveness shows that Corexit is toxic at much lower levels than many of its competitors. Only 2.61 ppm of Corexit 9500 is required to kill 50 percent of fish exposed to it within 96 hours. Sayer Ji clarifies this by explaining that the Corexit itself actually only has a toxicity level of 25.20 parts per million. The test oil the EPA uses has a higher toxicity of 10.72 ppm. It is when you add the Corexit to oil at a 1:10 ratio that the combined toxicity of this third entity "dispersed oil" goes all the way to 2.6 ppm.
So, why would BP choose Corexit, given its higher toxicity and poor performance in handling Louisiana crude?
As it turns out, BP has financial ties with Nalco, which explains why they have now poured more than 1,021,000 gallons of it into the Gulf and have another 805,000 gallons on order. Because of these industry ties, Corexit is the only dispersant available in the massive quantities "needed" for an oil spill of this size.
In fact, they used up all exiting stockpiles of Corexit 9527A, the older and less desirable formula, and Nalco states it will be discontinued, now that it has been used up.
And if it is toxic enough to be discontinued, why was it being dumped into the Gulf of Mexico in the first place?
Of all 18 dispersants tested, Corexit 9500 and 9527A are the LEAST effective, further confirming that BP's preferential use of these products is motivated by profit, rather than their proclaimed intention to "clean up the mess," as Sayer Ji points out.
Although using less toxic dispersants is a good idea, relative toxicity is NOT really the issue. A far more critical point is the inherently damaging consequences of dispersing the oil by any means.

 http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2010/06/12/plans-to-clean-up-the-oil-spill--dolphins-with-mops-aquaman-or-blame-the-french.aspx

 

 

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Corexit, Oil Dispersant Used By BP, Is Destroying Gulf Marine Life, Scientists Say

 

Three years ago, when BP’s Deepwater Horizon began leaking some 210 million gallons of Louisiana Crude into the Gulf of Mexico, the U.S. government allowed the company to apply chemical “dispersants” to the blossoming oil slick to prevent toxic gunk from reaching the fragile bays, beaches, and mangroves of the coast, where so much marine life originates. But a number of recent studies show that BP and the feds may have made a huge mistake, for which everything from microscopic organisms to bottlenose dolphins are now paying the highest price.

After the spill, BP secured about a third of the world’s supply of dispersants, namely Corexit 9500 and 9527, according to The New York Times. Of the two, 9527 is more toxic. Corexit dispersants emulsify oil into tiny beads, causing them to sink toward the bottom. Wave action and wind turbulence degrade the oil further, and evaporation concentrates the toxins in the oil-Corexit mixture, including dangerous compounds called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), known to cause cancer and developmental disorders.

When BP began spraying the Gulf, critics cried foul. They said Corexit is not only toxic to marine life on its own, but when combined with crude oil, the mixture becomes several times more toxic than oil or dispersant alone.

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  Published April 8, 2014

  http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/04/140408-gulf-oil-spill-animals-anniversary-science-deepwater-horizon-science/

 

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Toxicity Aside, Dispersants Could Undermine Natural Oil-Eaters

http://news.sciencemag.org/environment/2010/05/toxicity-aside-dispersants-could-undermine-natural-oil-eaters

 

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BP Oil Spill Is Much Worse Than People Think, Scientists Say

 

 

Scientists at Penn State University have discovered two new coral reefs near the site of BP’s historic 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and the impacts to those reefs from the spill have been greater than expected, according to research released Monday.
The two additional reefs found by the PSU team were both farther away and deeper than the one coral reef that had previously been found to have been impacted by the spill. That indicates not only that marine ecosystems may be more greatly affected, but that some of the 210 million gallons of oil that BP spilled into the Gulf is making its mark in the deep sea.
“The footprint of the impact of the spill on coral communities is both deeper and wider than previous data indicated,” PSU biology professor Charles Fisher, who led the study, said.


 http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2014/07/29/3465261/bp-oil-spill-coral-reefs/

------------------------------------------------------


 

BP, federal government fighting over leak totals in Gulf oil spill trial in New Orleans

 http://www.nola.com/news/gulf-oil-spill/index.ssf/2013/10/bp_and_federal_government_figh.html

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Human rights group: BP discouraging crews from using respirators

 http://www.rawstory.com/rs/2010/06/11/rfk-center-bp-discouraged-crews-respirators/

--------------------------------------------

La. Oil Spill Crews Suffer Mystery Illnesses

 http://news.discovery.com/human/oil-spill-health-effects-04172011.htm

----------------------------------------------

BP Oil Spill Cleanup Workers Are At Higher Risk Of Sickness, Cancer

 http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2013/09/17/2632351/oil-spill-cleanup-workers-sick/

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The Ongoing Great Gulf Coast Holocaust

 http://thecommonsenseshow.com/2013/03/09/the-ongoing-great-gulf-coast-holocaust-part-1/

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BP oil spill: scientists find giant plume of droplets 'missed' by official account


 19 August 2010

A 22-mile plume of droplets from BP's Deepwater Horizon well in the Gulf of Mexico undermines claim that oil has degraded

http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2010/aug/19/bp-oil-spill-scientists-plume

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Lindsey Williams: It’s the Toxic Fumes that Could Cause Death

 

EPA found highly toxic gases coming up with the oil, volatile organic compounds in the air in the Gulf, including:

  • Hydrogen sulphide.  5-10 parts per billion is allowable, but what is coming out is 1,200 ppb. Several states are in the path of the vapors.
  • Benzene. Allowable limit is 0-4 ppb; current level going to the shores and being carried by the wind is 3,000 ppb. Exposure to low levels of benzene can cause extensive damage. It leads to cancer and other conditions.
  • Methylene chloride. Safe levels 61 ppb; current levels 3-3,400 ppb.

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Five Things to Know About the Latest BP Gulf Oil Spill Trial

 

 January 20, 2015 

 http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2015-01-20/the-latest-bp-oil-spill-trial-explained

------------------------------------------- 


 

Let’s cut off the subsidies to profitable oil companies

April 29, 2011

There was an oil spill on Capitol Hill this week, when the truth about tax giveaways to the oil industry spilled from House Speaker John Boehner's mouth. Asked why the oil industry should continue to receive $4 billion in tax giveaways while Congress cuts programs for people in poverty and the House prepares to vote next week on legislation to expedite offshore development without new safety requirements, the speaker sprang a leak. Oil and gas producers are "gonna pay their fair share in taxes and they should," Boehner told a reporter for ABC News, opening the door to ending subsidies that have benefited the oil companies at taxpayers' expense since the 1920s.

 http://www.chron.com/opinion/outlook/article/Let-s-cut-off-the-subsidies-to-profitable-oil-1621582.php

-----------------------------------------------

 

 

Emanuel links fall elections to GOP support of BP

The White House is relishing what it sees as "a political gift" - GOP criticism of the administration for pushing BP for a $20 billion compensation fund - and warning of the danger if voters put big business-backing Republicans back in power.

 http://seattletimes.com/html/politics/2012165020_apusgulfoilspillwhitehouse.html

 

-----------------------------------

 

Obama Using Oil Spill To Push Nightmare Green Economy Agenda

http://truth11.com/2010/06/15/obama-using-oil-spill-to-push-nightmare-green-economy-agenda/

-------------------------------------------------


 

BP lied about size of U.S. Gulf oil spill, lawyers tell trial

 

 Sep 30, 2013

 http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/09/30/us-bp-trial-idUSBRE98T13U20130930

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Gulf Oil Spill Recovery Could Take Decades For Deep-Sea Ecosystem, Study Finds

 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/09/25/gulf-oil-spill-recovery-study_n_3984577.html

-----------------------------------------------

 

 Even oil wells that were damaged by hurricane Ivan in 2004, still leak small amounts of oil into the ocean, 7 years after the incident. Many question how long it will take to recover, from the BP oil disaster incident, that occurred in 2010. Many question if the Gulf will ever fully recover. With reports of new plumes leaking in the grounds of the ocean, only time can tell what will happen.

----------------------------------------

 

 

Gulf oil spill still leaking after 7 years subject of lawsuit

 

 Environmental groups on Thursday sued an oil company over the pace of its cleanup of a Gulf of Mexico spill that continues seven years after it was triggered by Hurricane Ivan in 2004.

The groups allege that Taylor Energy, based in New Orleans, has violated the Clean Water Act provisions that require public participation in any enforcement of the law.

"Without details about Taylor’s response to this crisis," the lawsuit states, "it is impossible for members of the public to assess the risk that similar events will cause additional multi-year spills, including spills from higher-pressure wells in deeper water."

 http://usnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/02/02/10301702-gulf-oil-spill-still-leaking-after-7-years-subject-of-lawsuit

-------------------------------------------



Even when multiple oil wells in the Gulf are leaking, several years after being ruptured. A few people have mentioned, using nuclear explosions, to attempt to seal up the leaks of oil, coming up from the ground of the ocean, from the BP oil spill. Most people have said that this is not a good idea. Scientists claim that detonating a nuclear device near the crust of the ocean, could cause more leaks and plumes to form, near the impact area, from the surrounding explosion and concussion. An explosion could also change the conditions, of already existing natural oil slicks. This includes natural oil wells, that could be close to the surface of the ocean floor.

 

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Nuclear Option on Gulf Oil Spill? No Way, U.S. Says

 

 http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/03/us/03nuke.html

 

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  BP is still allowed to resume drilling, shortly after the worst oil spill disaster in American history, by judges who have special oil investments.

 

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Judge Who Overturned Drilling Ban Has Oil Investments

 

 23 Jun 2010

 

 The Louisiana judge who struck down the Obama administration's six-month ban on deepwater oil drilling in the Gulf of Mexico has reported extensive investments in the oil and gas industry, according to financial disclosure reports. He's also a new member of a secret national security court.

 

 

U.S. District Judge Martin Feldman, a 1983 appointee of President Ronald Reagan, reported owning less than $15,000 in stock in 2008 inTransocean, the company that owned the sunken Deepwater Horizon drilling rig.

Feldman overturned the ban Tuesday, saying the government simply assumed that because one rig exploded, the others pose an imminent danger, too.
The White House promised an immediate appeal. The Interior Department had imposed the moratorium last month in the wake of the BP disaster, halting approval of any new permits for deepwater projects and suspending drilling on 33 exploratory wells.

Interior Secretary Ken Salazar said in a statement late Tuesday that within the next few days he would issue a new order imposing a moratorium that eliminates any doubt it is needed and appropriate.

BP's new point man for the oil spill wouldn't say Wednesday if the company would resume deepwater drilling in the Gulf of Mexico.

Asked about it Wednesday on NBC's "Today" show, BP managing director Bob Dudley said they will "step back" from the issue while they investigate the rig explosion.

Also Wednesday, BP said Dudley has been appointed to head the new Gulf Coast Restoration Organization, which is in charge of cleaning up the oil spill.
Several companies that ferry people and supplies and provide other services to offshore rigs argued that the moratorium was arbitrarily imposed after the April 20 explosion that killed 11 workers and blew out a well 5,000 feet underwater. It has spewed anywhere from 67 million to 127 million gallons of oil.

Feldman's 2008 financial disclosure report — the most recent available — also showed investments in Ocean Energy, a Houston-based company, as well as Quicksilver Resources, Prospect Energy, Peabody Energy, Halliburton, Pengrowth Energy Trust , Atlas Energy Resources, Parker Drilling and others. Halliburton was also involved in the doomed Deepwater Horizon project.

 http://www.cnbc.com/id/37868603

 

-------------------------------------------------------

 

 

BP expected to resume drilling in Gulf of Mexico after deal with US regulators


  3 April 2011



BP exploration agreed despite fallout from Deepwater Horizon disaster and threat of manslaughter charges

 http://www.theguardian.com/business/2011/apr/03/deepwater-horizon-bp-restarts-gulf-of-mexico-oil-exploration

 

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NEW 4-Mile Long Oil Slick Near BP’s Gulf Oil Well

 Posted on

BP’s Macondo Well May Leak for Years

 

CNN reports:
An oil sheen about four miles long has appeared in the Gulf of Mexico near the site of the worst oil spill in U.S. history, a Coast Guard spokesman said Thursday.
It was not immediately clear where the oil is coming from, said Petty Officer 3rd Class Ryan Tippets. [Although previous oil has been matched as a "dead ringer" to the BP well.]
Coast Guardsmen went to the location after seeing the oil on a satellite image, Tippets said. The response team collected samples and sent them to the Coast Guard Marine Safety Lab in Connecticut for testing.
***
The sheen is near the spot where, on April 20, 2010, BP’s Deepwater Horizon drilling rig exploded over the Macondo well, killing 11 workers and spewing oil that spread across a huge portion of the Gulf.

As we’ve noted for years, BP’s Macondo oil well is still leaking … and will leak for years.

For example, we noted in March:
In June of 2010, BP officials admitted to damage beneath the seafloor under BP’s Gulf Macondo well.

Numerous scientists have speculated that the blowout and subsequent clumsy attempts by BP to plug the well could have created new seeps, and made pre-existing natural seeps bigger.

http://www.washingtonsblog.com/2012/10/new-4-mile-long-oil-slick-at-bps-macando-oil-well.html

 

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How BP's Oil Spill Will Create a Gusher of Money for P&G's Dishwashing Liquid

 

  May 4, 2010

http://www.cbsnews.com/news/how-bps-oil-spill-will-create-a-gusher-of-money-for-p038gs-dishwashing-liquid/

 

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Firms push to break Dawn's monopoly as bird cleaner

Dozens of firms want to get their products used to clean oil off of birds. But for 30 years, the nation's bird rescue organizations have remained faithful to Dawn.


 September 19, 2010

 http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2010-09-19/business/ct-biz-0919-dawn-birds-20100919_1_birds-and-humans-international-bird-rescue-clean-oil

Dawn detergent's bird-cleaning monopoly has its competitors in a lather.
As images of oil-soaked birds, victims of BP's Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico, getting scrubbed in tubs capture the world's attention, dozens of companies are clamoring to get their products on some feathers. But for 30 years, the nation's bird rescue organizations have remained faithful to Dawn.

 

Addison-based Earth Friendly Products, one of the largest U.S. makers of green cleaning products, recently called Dawn a "chemical cocktail,'' claiming consumer products giant Procter & Gamble has a "grand strategic plan to lock up the bird cleaning business in the U.S. and abroad."

Van Vlahakis, Earth Friendly's chief executive, notes that P&G donates hundreds of thousands of dollars a year to California-based International Bird Rescue and Research Center, which is the largest organization of its kind, and other wildlife rescue organizations. Last year P&G's $250,000 donation amounted to roughly a quarter of the rescue center's operating budget, the organization and P&G confirmed. P&G also donates to Tri-State Bird Rescue & Research, which is leading bird-washing operations in the Gulf in partnership with the International Bird Rescue and Research Center and the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.
"Safe alternatives — environmentally sound, effective dishwashing liquids that only use natural products — are available but are not being used," said Vlahakis. His company was rebuffed by BP and nearly a dozen rescue organizations in its offer to donate a truckload of Dishmate detergent, which is enough to clean 100,000 birds.

"Our ingredients include cleaning agents you can actually pronounce, such as coconut oil derived surfactants, almond oil and cherry oil. And we don't do animal testing ever," he said.

Dawn contains propylene glycol, which, according to the federal Environmental Protection Agency, can adversely affect marine life when released in large quantities in water by consuming oxygen that aquatic organisms need to live. It also contains sodium lauryl sulfate, a chemical that has stirred controversy because it can irritate animals' skin.

P&G, based in Cincinnati, and bird rescue organizations maintain that Dawn is safe for birds and humans. Tri-State says it uses Dawn because it works the best and is easy to get in large quantities at a moment's notice. P&G says it donates the product because it is the right thing to do.

 

---------------------------------------------------------------- 


Here's a list of the harmful chemicals that we found in one of the Dawn Ultra Concentrated Antibacterial Hand Soap Dishwashing Liquids. Many scientists even have allowed these toxic chemicals, to be used as a bird cleaner, on birds from oil spills, for over thirty years. 

Keep in mind, that different dyes used in Dawn, such as FD&C Blue 1, happen to be made from a petroleum by-product waste. 

-------------------------------------------------------

 

Dawn Ultra Concentrated Antibacterial Hand Soap Dishwashing Liquid, Apple Blossom

 

http://www.ewg.org/guides/cleaners/3007-DawnUltraConcentratedAntibacterialHandSoapDishwashingLiquidAppleBlossom


 Dawn Ultra Concentrated Antibacterial Hand Soap Dishwashing Liquid, Apple Blossom:

 Score/Grade: {   D    }     High Concern: Likely hazards to health or the environment. May also have poor ingredient disclosure.


Ingredients:

High Concern: chronic aquatic toxicity, acute aquatic toxicity;  
Moderate Concern: general ecotoxicity, developmental/endocrine/reproductive effects;  
Some Concern: cancer, immune system effects, circulatory system effects, general systemic/organ effects, digestive system effects, skin irritation/allergies/damage, nervous system effects, damage to vision

Some Concern: skin irritation/allergies/damage, acute aquatic toxicity, nervous system effects, respiratory effects, biodegradation;
 Disclosure Concern: non-specific ingredient

High Concern: acute aquatic toxicity; Some Concern: skin irritation/allergies/damage

Some Concern: cancer, chronic aquatic toxicity, acute aquatic toxicity, general systemic/organ effects

No data, some concern; Disclosure Concern: non-specific ingredient

Some Concern: chronic aquatic toxicity, damage to DNA, respiratory effects, developmental/endocrine/reproductive effects, nervous system effects, digestive system effects, acute aquatic toxicity, damage to vision, cancer

No data, some concern

No data, some concern

ALKYL DIMETHYL AMINE OXIDE
Disclosure Concern: non-specific ingredient
Some Concern: chronic aquatic toxicity, general systemic/organ effects, acute aquatic toxicity

FD&C BLUE 1

SODIUM CHLORIDE

--------------------------------------------------------------

 

Dawn Ultra Concentrated Dishwashing Liquid, Original

 http://www.ewg.org/guides/cleaners/2448-DawnUltraConcentratedDishwashingLiquidOriginal



Ingredients:

High Concern: acute aquatic toxicity; Some Concern: skin irritation/allergies/damage

Some Concern: skin irritation/allergies/damage, acute aquatic toxicity, nervous system effects, respiratory effects, biodegradation; Disclosure Concern: non-specific ingredient

No data, some concern

Some Concern: chronic aquatic toxicity, damage to DNA, respiratory effects, developmental/endocrine/reproductive effects, digestive system effects, nervous system effects, acute aquatic toxicity, damage to vision, cancer

Some Concern: skin irritation/allergies/damage

No data, some concern

SURFACTANTS
Disclosure Concern: non-specific ingredient
Some Concern: chronic aquatic toxicity, general systemic/organ effects, acute aquatic toxicity

CYCLOHEXANEDIAMINE
No data, some concern; Disclosure Concern: non-specific ingredient

Disclosure Concern: non-specific ingredient

--------------------------------------

 

  It is shocking that so many people in the scientific community, have allowed these chemicals, to be used on animals. It shows a lack of knowledge or responsibility, in many areas of the scientific community, including different fields of the government.

 

 

 

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BP oil spill: an interactive timeline

http://www.theguardian.com/environment/interactive/2010/jul/08/bp-oil-spill-timeline-interactive

 

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----

Chapter 11: BP History

----
EPA To Use Mushrooms to Break Down BP’s Oil?

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Burmah Oil

It became an early and major shareholder in Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) - later Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, then British Petroleum and eventually BP. It restricted its downstream interests to the subcontinent, where BP had no business. It played a major role in the oil industry in South Asia for about a century through its subsidiaries, and in discovery of oil in the Middle East through its significant interest in British Petroleum. It marketed itself under the BOC brand in Burma, Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan) and Assam (in India) and through a joint venture Burmah-Shell with Shell in the rest of India.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmah_Oil

-------------------------------------------

 

Burmah Oil Co. v Lord Advocate

 

Burmah Oil Company Ltd. v Lord Advocate, [1965] AC 75, was a court case, raised in Scotland, and decided ultimately in the House of Lords. The case is an important decision in UK constitutional law and had unusual legal repercussions at the time.
This case concerned the destruction of oil fields in Burma by British forces during the Second World War. The sabotage was committed in order to prevent the plantations from falling into the hands of the advancing Japanese army.

 The result of the case was that the pursuers, Burmah Oil Company and others, should receive compensation for their destroyed plantations. In the end, the result was frustrated by the passing of a retrospective Act of Parliament, the War Damage Act 1965, which retroactively exempts the Crown from liability in respect of damage to, or destruction of, property caused by acts lawfully done by the Crown during, or in contemplation of the outbreak of, a war in which it is engaged.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmah_Oil_Co._v_Lord_Advocate

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Dracone Barge

A Dracone Barge is a large flexible watertight tube intended to carry a liquid cargo while towed mostly-submerged behind a ship. One large current example of the type has a capacity of 935 cubic metres (4.23m diameter, 91m long) while weighing only 6.5 tonnes empty.
The Dracone Barge was invented in 1956 by Professor William Hawthorne as a new type of oil tanker. The intent was to create an improved transport technology: the long tube can be pulled by a lower powered vessel than the equivalent tanker, the cargo can be handed off at the destination very quickly, and incurs no drag cost when empty (because it can easily be taken aboard), as compared to the similar unladen to laden drag of the rigid-hulled tanker of equivalent capacity.

The common modern use (described in a patent application filed by BP in 1972 in combination with capture booms) is in the clean-up of petroleum spills or pollution slicks, where any small and manouevrable vessel (e.g. a harbour tug) with pumping gear mounted on it can gather up a much larger volume of liquid than it can carry by pumping it promptly back over the side into a tanker or Dracone Barge.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dracone_barge

---------------------------------------------


Amoco

Amoco Corporation, originally Standard Oil Company (Indiana), was a global chemical and oil company that was founded in 1889 around a refinery located in Whiting, Indiana, United States.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amoco

-----------------------

BP

In 1998 BP merged with Amoco

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BP

Environmental record

 

Hazardous substance dumping 1993–1995

In September 1999, one of BP's US subsidiaries, BP Exploration Alaska (BPXA), pleaded guilty to criminal charges stemming from its illegally dumping of hazardous wastes on the Alaska North Slope, paying fines and penalties totaling $22 million. BP paid the maximum $500,000 in criminal fines, $6.5 million in civil penalties, and established a $15 million environmental management system at all of BP facilities in the US and Gulf of Mexico that are engaged in oil exploration, drilling or production. The charges stemmed from the 1993 to 1995 dumping of hazardous wastes on Endicott Island, Alaska by BP's contractor Doyon Drilling. The firm illegally discharged waste oil, paint thinner and other toxic and hazardous substances by injecting them down the outer rim, or annuli, of the oil wells. BPXA failed to report the illegal injections when it learned of the conduct, in violation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act.



Air pollution violations

In 2000 BP Amoco acquired ARCO, a Los Angeles-based oil group. In 2003 California’s South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD) filed a complaint against BP/ARCO, seeking $319 million in penalties for thousands of air pollution violations over an 8-year period. In January 2005, the agency filed a second suit against BP based on violations between August 2002 and October 2004. The suit alleged that BP illegally released air pollutants by failing to adequately inspect, maintain, repair and properly operate thousands of pieces of equipment across the refinery as required by AQMD regulations. It was alleged that in some cases the violations were due to negligence, while in others the violations were knowingly and willfully committed by refinery officials. In 2005 a settlement was reached under which BP agreed to pay $25 million in cash penalties and $6 million in past emissions fees, while spending $20 million on environmental improvements at the refinery and $30 million on community programs focused on asthma diagnosis and treatment.


In 2013, a total of 474 Galveston County residents living near the BP Texas City Refinery filed a $1 billion lawsuit against BP, accusing the company of "intentionally misleading the public about the seriousness" of a two-week release of toxic fumes which began on 10 November 2011. "BP reportedly released Sulfur Dioxide, Methyl Carpaptan, Dimethyl Disulfide and other toxic chemicals into the atmosphere” reads the report. The lawsuit further claims Galveston county has the worst air quality in the United States due to BP's violations of air pollution laws. BP had no comment and said it would address the suit in the court system.



Colombian farmland damages claim

 

Canadian oil sands

 

Texas City Refinery explosion

 

Prudhoe Bay

 

1965 Sea Gem offshore oil rig disaster

 

2008 Caspian Sea gas leak and blowout

 

2010 Texas City Chemical leak

 

2010 Deepwater Horizon explosion and oil spill

 

Safety and health violations

Citing conditions similar to those that resulted in the 2005 Texas City Refinery explosion, on 25 April 2006, the U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) fined BP more than $2.4 million for unsafe operations at the company's Oregon, Ohio refinery. An OSHA inspection resulted in 32 per-instance willful citations including locating people in vulnerable buildings among the processing units, failing to correct de-pressurization deficiencies and deficiencies with gas monitors, and failing to prevent the use of non-approved electrical equipment in locations in which hazardous concentrations of flammable gases or vapors may exist. BP was further fined for neglecting to develop shutdown procedures and designate responsibilities and to establish a system to promptly address and resolve recommendations made after an incident when a large feed pump failed three years prior to 2006. Penalties were also issued for five serious violations, including failure to develop operating procedures for a unit that removes sulfur compound; failure to ensure that operating procedures reflect current operating practice in the Isocracker Unit; failure to resolve process hazard analysis recommendations; failure to resolve process safety management compliance audit items in a timely manner; and failure to periodically inspect pressure piping systems.





In 2008 BP and several other major oil refiners agreed to pay $422 million to settle a class-action lawsuit stemming from water contamination tied to the gasoline additive MTBE, a chemical that was once a key gasoline ingredient. Leaked from storage tanks, MTBE has been found in several water systems across the United States. The plaintiffs maintain that the industry knew about the environmental dangers but that they used it instead of other possible alternatives because it was less expensive. The companies will also be required to pay 70 percent of cleanup costs for any wells newly affected at any time over the next 30 years.

BP has one of the worst safety records of any major oil company that operates in the United States. Between 2007 and 2010, BP refineries in Ohio and Texas accounted for 97 percent of "egregious, willful" violations handed out by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). BP had 760 "egregious, willful" violations during that period, while Sunoco and Conoco-Phillips each had eight, Citgo two and Exxon had one. The deputy assistant secretary of labour at OSHA, said "The only thing you can conclude is that BP has a serious, systemic safety problem in their company."

 

Market manipulation investigations and sanctions

The US Justice Department and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission filed charges against BP Products North America Inc. (subsidiary of BP plc) and several BP traders, alleging they conspired to raise the price of propane by seeking to corner the propane market in 2004. In 2006, one former trader pleaded guilty. In 2007, BP paid $303 million in restitution and fines as part of an agreement to defer prosecution. BP was charged with cornering and manipulating the price of TET propane in 2003 and 2004. BP paid a $125 million civil monetary penalty to the CFTC, established a compliance and ethics program, and installed a monitor to oversee BP’s trading activities in the commodities markets. BP also paid $53 million BP into a restitution fund for victims, a $100 million criminal penalty, plus $25 million into a consumer fraud fund, as well as other payments. Also in 2007, four other former traders were charged. These charges were dismissed by a US District Court in 2009 on the grounds that the transactions were exempt under the Commodities Exchange Act because they didn't occur in a marketplace but were negotiated contracts among sophisticated companies. The dismissal was upheld by the Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit in 2011.



In November 2010, US regulators FERC and CFTC began an investigation of BP for allegedly manipulating the gas market. The investigation relates to trading activity that occurred in October and November 2008.




At that time, CFTC Enforcement staff provided BP with a notice of intent to recommend charges of attempted market manipulation in violation of the Commodity Exchange Act. BP denied that it engaged in "any inappropriate or unlawful activity." In July 2011, the FERC staff issued a "Notice of Alleged Violations" saying it had preliminarily determined that several BP entities fraudulently traded physical natural gas in the Houston Ship Channel and Katy markets and trading points to increase the value of their financial swing spread positions.


BP's London offices, along with those of Royal Dutch Shell and Statoil, were raided in May 2013 by regulators from the European Commission, beginning an investigation into allegations the companies reported distorted prices to the price reporting agency Platts, in order to "manipulate the published prices" for several oil and biofuel products. The EC is probing allegations the companies colluded to rig prices for more than a decade.

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Royal Dutch Shell

 

History

 



Royal Dutch Petroleum Company was a Dutch company founded in 1890 by Jean Baptiste August Kessler, along with Henri Deterding, when a Royal charter was granted by King William III of the Netherlands to a small oil exploration and production company known as "Royal Dutch Company for the Working of Petroleum Wells in the Dutch East Indies".


The "Shell" Transport and Trading Company (the quotation marks were part of the legal name) was a British company, founded in 1897 by Marcus Samuel and his brother Samuel Samuel.

Their father had owned a company, importing and selling sea-shells, after which the company "Shell" took its name.

It was not long before the company left its naturalist roots far behind. Initially the Company commissioned eight oil tankers for the purposes of transporting oil. In 1919, Shell took control of the Mexican Eagle Petroleum Company and in 1921 formed Shell-Mex Limited which marketed products under the "Shell" and "Eagle" brands in the United Kingdom. In 1932, partly in response to the difficult economic conditions of the times, Shell-Mex merged its UK marketing operations with those of to create British Petroleum Shell-Mex and BP  Ltd, a company that traded until the brands separated in 1975. Royal Dutch Company ranked 79th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts.


The 1930s saw Shell's Mexican assets seized by the local government. After the invasion of the Netherlands by Germany in 1940, the head office of the Dutch companies was moved to Curacao.




Around 1952, Shell was the first company to purchase and use a computer in the Netherlands.




The computer, a Ferranti Mark 1*, was assembled and used at the Shell laboratory in Amsterdam. In 1970 Shell acquired the mining company Billiton, which it subsequently sold in 1994 and now forms part of BHP Billiton

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Dutch_Shell

 

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Australia's Uranium

  (Updated December 2014)

The Ranger mine and associated town of Jabiru is about 230 kilometres east of Darwin, in the Northern Territory, surrounded by the Kakadu National Park, a major tourist attraction. The mine opened in 1981 at a production rate of approximately 3300 tonnes per year of uranium oxide and has since been expanded to 5500 t/yr capacity. Mining of the second pit was 1997 to 2012, and this is now being backfilled. Treatment is conventional acid leach. Future development will be underground, and application was made for approval of this in January 2013. A final decision of whether to mine the Ranger Deeps is expected at the end of 2014. Ranger is owned by Energy Resources of Australia Ltd (ERA), a 68.39% subsidiary of Rio Tinto.

During 1988 the Olympic Dam project, then a joint venture of Western Mining Corporation and BP Minerals, commenced operations about 560 km north of Adelaide, in an arid part of South Australia. The massive deposit is underground, some 350 metres below the surface, and is the largest known uranium orebody in the world. The large underground mine produces copper, with gold and uranium as major by-products. Annual production capacity for uranium oxide has been expanded from 1800 to 4600 tonnes U3O8. It is now owned by BHP Billiton, following its 2005 takeover of WMC Resources. There are plans to greatly increase the mine's size and output, by accessing the orebody with a huge open pit, about 4.1 x 3.5 km and 1000m deep. (Further details below)

 http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Country-Profiles/Countries-A-F/Australia/

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BP subsidiary to pay $2.5 million for cleanup of abandoned Butterfly and Burrell uranium mine sites

The U.S. on Tuesday (July 31) asked a federal judge to approve a consent decree under which BP America Inc. subsidiary Enstar LLC will pay $2.5 million for the remediation of former uranium mines located in a Colorado national forest.In June the U.S. filed a complaint against Enstar alleging violations of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act at the Butterfly and Burrell Mine sites. (Law360, July 31, 2012)

http://www.wise-uranium.org/udusaco.html


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EPA: Uranium From Polluted British Petroleum Mine Found In Nevada Water Wells

 03/18/2010

 

YERINGTON, Nev. — Peggy Pauly lives in a robin-egg blue, two-story house not far from acres of onion fields that make the northern Nevada air smell sweet at harvest time.
But she can look through the window from her kitchen table, just past her backyard with its swingset and pet llama, and see an ominous sign on a neighboring fence: "Danger: Uranium Mine."
For almost a decade, people who make their homes in this rural community in the Mason Valley 65 miles southeast of Reno have blamed that enormous abandoned mine for the high levels of uranium in their water wells.
They say they have been met by a stone wall from state regulators, local politicians and the huge oil company that inherited the toxic site – BP PLC. Those interests have insisted uranium naturally occurs in the region's soil and there's no way to prove that a half-century of processing metals at the former Anaconda pit mine is responsible for the contamination.
That has changed. A new wave of testing by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has found that 79 percent of the wells tested north of the World War II-era copper mine have dangerous levels of uranium or arsenic or both that make the water unsafe to drink.

 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/11/21/epa-uranium-from-polluted_n_366529.html


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  In 2014, a new BP oil spill in Indiana, leaked oil into Lake Michigan.

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UPDATE 4-Oil spills into Lake Michigan from BP refinery

 

  Mar 25, 2014

(Reuters) - Oil leaked from BP Plc's Whiting refinery in Indiana into Lake Michigan after a malfunction at a recently upgraded processing unit on Monday afternoon, the company confirmed on Tuesday.

Between 10 and 12 barrels, or around 500 gallons, of crude oil spilled into the lake, according to a local CBS report citing a source. That would make this a relatively small discharge; last week, a pipeline owned by Sunoco Logistics Partners spilled 240 barrels into an Ohio nature preserve.

 The leak had stopped on Tuesday and no injuries were reported, London-based BP said in a statement. It declined to comment on the volume of oil spilled.

 

http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/25/refinery-operations-bp-whiting-idUSL1N0MM0RQ20140325


 

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 Part 3: Sustainable future?

 

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Chapter 12: Agenda 21 

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Texas GOP Blasts United Nations Agenda 21

 

 

As the United Nations prepares for its next global conference on “sustainable development” in June, the Texas state GOP recently followed in the footsteps of the Republican National Committee (RNC) by passing a resolution blasting the controversial UN sustainability scheme known as Agenda 21, as well as all of the entities working toward its implementation. Advocates of liberty and national sovereignty celebrated the move as yet another victory in a decades-old battle against the plan.

According to experts and the state GOP’s resolution, the global scheme represents a significant threat to the U.S. Constitution, the individual rights of Americans, and the institution of private property. And despite never having been ratified by the U.S. Senate, it is being foisted on the people of every state through various organizations including an international non-profit group known as ICLEI, formerly called the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives.

 

 

 http://www.thenewamerican.com/tech/environment/item/11128-texas-gop-blasts-united-nations-agenda-21


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Texas Mayor Officially Cancels Agenda 21 Membership

The city of Irving, Texas has officially withdrawn its membership from ICLEI -- the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives.  This NGO was established in 1990 and is the action division of the policies laid out under the UN's Agenda 21 plan -- the globalist initiative to usher in a post-industrial world for the 21st century through the creation of local laws and requirements for city planning that essentially erase personal property rights and even steal land under a "sustainable" umbrella.

On ICLEI's own website (under the "Programs" section), they state, "Our campaigns, programs, and projects promote Local Agenda 21 as a participatory, long-term, strategic planning process that addresses local sustainability while protecting global common goods." Cities pay dues in order to obtain direction from ICLEI in establishing local policy and law. This is a violation of the Constitution, Article 1, Section 10:  "No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance or Confederation..." ICLEI receives funding by the David Rockefeller Fund, United States EPA, etc. ICLEI targets mayors -- in the 'Cool Mayor' program, and other local officials to implement Agenda 21.

 

 http://www.activistpost.com/2012/03/texas-mayor-officially-cancels-agenda.html

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  In many bills passed by the government, they often include good laws that may interest people. Many times politicians, try to slip in bad laws, with good laws, in different types of bills. 

Many have claimed that Agenda 21, is a vast variety of different laws and policies. It would be difficult for most people, to give too much power, to a group such as the United Nations. 

 We can see the special interest that United Nations has with DuPont & Monsanto, as seen in the blog, the DuPont Investigation.

The United Nations wants global tax increases,  including limits to freedom of speech.  This also includes the right to restrict the use of personal property.

For some, Agenda 21 sounds like it could have some benefits.

For example, Agenda 21 wants to limit, and eventually ban, most uses of fossil fuel.

For some, this would be considered another assault, on a natural resource, that we could no longer use, which people have been using for thousands of years.

We can see the problems when we mine too much of any resource, including oil.

We have had hydrogen technology, for well over 30 years now. We could have been using hydrogen powered motors, such as the water car built by Stan Meyer. Only now, have they admitted to the public, that they have had this technology. We could even be using electric cars, made from plant silicone solar panels as well.

We really should have been using hydrogen technology, over fossil fuel, this entire time.

We still believe that a little fossil fuel is not going to harm the planet, honestly. With all of the natural oil slicks, including oil that is burned in the ocean, under molten rocks of lava, including tar pits. Using a small amount of oil, is not that harmful to the planet. 

The Earth can heal itself in many ways. Even land that has been saturated in oil, can thrive again eventually. It takes time to biodegrade different chemicals. Even natural bacteria, feed off of oil in the ocean.

When you start extracting hundreds of millions of barrels of oil to burn and  displace around the Earth, including hundreds of millions of barrels of oil spilled by drilling for it. This can change the patterns of micro-climates on  land, including the oceans, for a long period of time. There have been serious debates recently, if burning too much fossil fuel, is causing problems with the ozone layer.

You will notice that there are dozens of scientific articles, each debating if humans cause as much greenhouse gas each year, as a medium sized volcano. This would mean, that burning fossil fuel, may not be as bad as some think. However, there are scientific articles that will say the exact opposite, and that humans create way more greenhouse gas, than several good sized  volcanoes. As a researcher, with dozens of scientific articles taking different sides, it is difficult to explain and showcase them all. This is because, most people, still honestly are not fully aware, of how our planet still operates. This includes geothermal cooling of the planet. The carbon and oxygen cycles, and how the oceans filter much of our air. We are concerned if too many types of different pollutions threatens the oceans, if this will harm the balance of different water and air cycles.

 

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The United Nations wants to use Agenda 21, for many different reasons. 

Many claim that certain parts of Agenda 21, have some good clauses in them. While throwing bad types of laws in Agenda 21 as well. Many have stated that Agenda 21 will limit personal freedoms, including the right to private property. This would mean, that the United Nations could throw American citizens off of their property, and relocate them to different areas or cities. 

What has many people concerned, is that they believe the United Nations, is using Agenda 21, to gain a scientific dictatorship, to gain control over the people of the world.

When we look at the following link http://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/austria/natur.htm ), we can see what the United Nations is doing in Austria, with Agenda 21. 

When you read down the list, we can see some things that many could agree with. Such as limiting the use of most types of pesticides.  However, many claim that Agenda 21, will ban the use of many farming methods. To where it could ban the use of personal organic soil mixtures, that you would use in your backyard. This could include the use of many restrictions on indoor farming, including the use of chemicals in hydroponics.

 The United Nations talks about using a majority of aquaponics, as a sustainable method, for farming across the world. 

We could use a system of aquaponics, including organic soil farming, in order to create an environmentally friendly way to grow food. It is still a concern, the amount of organic gardening, that the United Nations wants to limit.



 When we look at many Native American methods of farming, we can see that the Native Americans used a series of natural and organic farming methods. This also includes the use of organic pesticides. Many cultures have used peppers and tobacco, in order to stop insects from eating different fields of crops. The natives would also at times, grow different crops for the insects to gather and eat. This was done, so that the insects would stay away from the main crops being planted for food, for the natives to eat. This is how many people would try to coexist and thrive with the land.


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We could make a sustainable civilization, without the United Nations.

The United Nations has already caused many problems in the world. I personally do not trust the United Nations, with the amount of corruption that I have seen in their ranks. 

I have heard of different researchers, mention to me, how the United Nations will throw out a report, if the report talks about any type of genocide in the report. 


Growing up in different areas of Texas. You would often hear about the government trying to kick people off of their land, for any reason they could find. 

The authorities in Texas, have seized the property of individuals, just for finding one hemp plant, on that piece of private property.

The United Nations remains guilty, of being associated with trying to destroy the lives of many people, who have also grown hemp. 

The United Nations has thrown people in prison, just for the cultivation of hemp plants.

Why should we trust a group, such as the United Nations, that wants to ban the personal use of firearms, worldwide. This is being done, while the United Nations, is being accused of being associated in assisting with wars, including genocide, in different countries.

It is very possible to create a sustainable civilization, without the United Nations, or Agenda 21.

This is why we must question the United Nations, including Agenda 21.

We seek something even better for the people of this planet.

We could make even better laws, that would make Agenda 21, look as if many parts of it, were outdated for this type of civilization we live in.

Why is it with so many people that are incarcerated, should not even be in prison right now. How can we trust the government, when we see how many people that are incarcerated, should not even be there in the first place. 

Even the authorities in Texas, would try to break down the door of my research quarters, without a search warrant, then confiscate my computer equipment, right when I was doing some of the most intense research on these subjects. I now have to question the legitimacy of the government in Texas, including what they are doing to scientific researchers in Texas. We will not be intimidated by the governments of the world, that threaten to stop our research. This is why I had to move my research quarters out of the state of Texas. I felt that the local authorities were trying to stop my research on the different subjects mentioned in this report, including other reports as well. 




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As long as this section remains up. I would like to explain to my listeners why the Texas government has treated me like a reporter, similar to how the Pol Pot regime treated reporters in Cambodia. It is my obligation to tell the public, when the authorities threaten to stop my scientific work. The government of Texas is threatening my life, and threatening to stop my scientific research. I accuse the government of Texas, of trying to destroy my research on childhood cancer. If the Texas authorities do not stop the harassment of our reporters, including the 167th District Court. We will be calling for the American people to stop the government of Texas, from destroying our scientific research.

 We are asking the government of Texas, to stop treating reporters, similar to how the Pol Pot regime tried to destroy the scientific research of reporters. The government of Texas has intimidated researchers too many times, to where we now accuse the Texas government, of trying to destroy our scientific work. You also have threatened our lives, and have caused lots of damages to our scientific research, including unwanted stress. We now leave it up to the American people, to stop the assault on the free scientific press, by the corrupt politics in Texas. Reform the government of Texas, so that they stop treating American citizens, including scientists and journalists, like a tyrannical regime that is out of control to harm others. 

I love my country very much. I do not like how the people behind the government in Texas, try to threaten the lives of journalists and reporters. I will defend my scientific research, against an oppressive regime, that is not capable of maintaining the proper environment for living beings.

The government of Texas is destroying the environment, while trying to go after and harm innocent scientific journalists that try to report about this. Please stop trying to ruin the lives of the free scientific press. 

We give the orders to the American people to reform the state of Texas. This consists of forcing all politicians to resign, until this matter is resolved. We need to reform the courts as well. 

We have already called many times, for the removal of many corrupt politicians and organisations. Then we ask, what ever really gets done about these matters. 

Remember, that I tried really hard as a journalist, to stop the people responsible mentioned in my videos and blogs, from harming the planet. I have had my life threatened by the authorities, to where I have to ask myself constantly, if I should just stop, to enjoy my life and raise a family. The truth is that I would never stop any of my reports, for as long as I could possibly could.

For the past years, I have released reports on carcinogens in childhood food and clothing. Many years go by, and nothing is ever done about the carcinogens in childhood clothing. Instead, I see the American people dress their children in this toxic clothing everyday, and think nothing of it. Then you try to explain this to the people, and many of them can't even hold a serious conversation or debate about this. I take a look at many of the people, and see their everyday lives, of how they have been brought up. I often question how much good we can actually get done in this society, with the amount of people that are conditioned to accept this type of unsustainable civilization.


I know that many people have tried to do the right thing, and have protested against much of this corruption. The people that have tried to do the right thing, know that enough people around them, are not helping out enough, with doing the right thing to fix the problems in our civilization.

I'm tired of explaining and repeating many of these problems in the world, while nothing ever gets done about these issues.

The government of Texas, is destroying and tampering with our scientific research, as long as this section remains up. If the government of Texas has any honor left, they will stop harassing our reporters right now, or deal with the American people. We tried really hard to bring some of the lead research on many topics. We are glad that we have been given enough time to explain, that the government is now trying to tamper with, and stop our scientific research. We ask for the American people to intervene, and stop the corrupt authorities, from ruining the ecosystem, and trying to silence the press.


 My Texas Driver's License number is: 18785123, I have had the authorities in Texas, break down my research quarters in 2009, and destroyed my computer equipment.

The authorities in Texas, currently continue to threaten me, to where I cannot even finish this report in full, due to governmental tampering.


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Chapter 13: Texas prisons 

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 Texas Attorney General indicted for felony securities fraud, prosecutor says

August 02, 2015

http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2015/08/02/texas-attorney-general-indicted-for-felony-securities-fraud-prosecutor-says/

 

 

--------------------

 

 

List of state and local political scandals in the United States

 

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_state_and_local_political_scandals_in_the_United_States

 

 

  • Texas State Representative Ron Reynolds (D) was arrested and charged with violating the state barratry law (unlawful solicitation of clients by lawyers).

  • Texas A three-judge federal court found the Republican-controlled Texas Legislature guilty of discriminating against Latinos and blacks in the drawing of new election districts and threw out its redistricting plans for both the U.S. House of Representatives and the state Legislature.

  • Texas State Representative Drew Darby (R) is facing a felony charge after he attempted to take a weapon through a security screening at Austin-Bergstrom International Airport. Darby was booked into Travis County Jail at 7:22 a.m. on Nov. 14 after carrying a .38 caliber Ruger and six rounds of ammunition.

  • Texas Lt. Governor David Dewhurst's (R) Campaign Manager Kenneth "Buddy" Barfield (R) pled guilty to charges of wire fraud, filing a false tax return and the embezzlement of nearly $1.8 million from the lieutenant governor's failed 2012 campaign for a seat in the U.S. Senate. (2014)
  •  
  • Texas Governor James Edward Ferguson (D), also known as "PA", was impeached and removed from office for financial misconduct (1917)

  •  

    Texas Sharpstown scandal (1971–1972)

  • Texas Governor Miriam A. Ferguson (D), also known as "MA", was the first woman elected Governor of a state in the U.S. and wife of the removed ex-governor. She was implicated in the same financial improprieties that had brought down "Pa" causing her to lose the Democratic primary in 1926

Texas The Veterans' Land Board scandal in (1954) Bascom Giles (D) was reelected as Texas Land Commissioner in 1954, but facing criminal investigation by the Texas Attorney General, he failed to appear to take the oath of office in January, 1955. Giles was eventually convicted of fraud and bribery and served three years of a six year prison term.

 

 

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_state_and_local_political_scandals_in_the_United_States

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List of United States federal officials convicted of corruption offenses



Albert Bustamante














House of Representatives Texas 1993 Federal official gratuity and RICO

 

John Dowdy
House of Representatives Texas 1971 Federal official conflict-of-interest and Travel Act

 

 

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_States_federal_

officials_convicted_of_corruption_offenses

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Texas ranks sixth in nation for corruption convictions


 January 23, 2015

  Texas was ranked sixth in the U.S. for public officials convicted on corruption charges between 1976 and 2010. Texas had more than 1,500 convictions, according to an online data blog FiveThirtyEight. New York topped the list with more than 2,500, followed by California with 2,345, according to the blog. Per year, Texas handed out 43 corruption convictions compared to the Empire State’s 70.

But when per capita rates were calculated, Texas dropped to No. 35, just below California at No. 34. New York dropped to No. 11 on the list, while Louisiana took the top spot.

A survey of state reporters ranked Texas No. 14 for its level of corruption, and Kentucky took the top prize, with reporters seeing its political system as the most corrupt in the country.

 

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South Texas corruption scandals spur reflection

 05/04/2014

 

 http://www.elpasotimes.com/latestnews/ci_25695188/south-texas-corruption-scandals-spur-reflection

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Texas Judges: Out Of Order


Texas is one of just six states that select all of its judges in partisan elections.  Critics say that creates conflicts of interest and politics becomes more important than qualifications. 

 

 Judge Molberg is a former Dallas County Democratic Party Chair and one of the biggest fundraisers among the county’s civil and criminal judges.  Records show that in the first six months of his reelection campaign Molberg raised more than $175,000 just in case he drew a primary opponent which he didn’t.  And 93% of the contributions came from attorneys and the legal community many of whom appear in his court.

 

http://keranews.org/post/texas-judges-out-order

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Rick Perry's Cover-Up and Corruption: A Ten Part Series

November 1, 2010

 Rick Perry is a corrupt career politician who will say and do anything to get elected. He is, without question, in it for himself. The ten-part series below focuses on some of the worst examples of his cover-ups and corruption.


http://www.burntorangereport.com/diary/10951/rick-perrys-coverup-and-corruption-a-ten-part-series

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China’s Texas Hold ’em: Rick Perry and a Chinese plant on the Gulf


  http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/4/14/rick-perrys-ties-to-texas-chinese-methanol-plant.html

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Rick Perry Is on the Payroll of His Super-PAC's Biggest Sugar Daddy

 Jul. 13, 2015

 

http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2015/07/rick-perry-kelcy-warren-super-pac-energy-transfer-partners

 

The GOP candidate is on the board of a pipeline company whose CEO is spending millions to get him elected president.

 

Rick Perry's fundraising for his second presidential campaign is off to a tepid start. Last week, his campaign announced a $1.07 million haul since Perry officially declared his candidacy at the beginning of June. Though he entered the race later than some of the other GOP candidates, that's far lower than the amounts raised by some of his rivals including Jeb Bush, Ted Cruz, and Ben Carson.
Things were a bit better for Perry on the super PAC front, where a trio of interlocking groups supporting his campaign claimed $16.8 million in donations, according to CNN. The largest donor to this outside spending effort is the billionaire owner of a Texas pipeline company that also happens to write Rick Perry's paycheck.
As Mother Jones reported last month, Perry is still sitting on the corporate board of Energy Transfer Partners, even after making his presidential campaign official. Perry had joined the board of the oil and natural gas pipeline company in early February, shortly after leaving the Texas governor's office. Politicians typically step down from such jobs before launching a presidential bid to avoid any appearance of a conflict of interest, but Perry's kept his board spot while hitting the campaign trail. While the company isn't willing to disclose his salary for the board spot, past Securities and Exchange Commission records show that the job has recently come with about $50,000 in compensation.

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Rick Perry booked by authorities, then goes for ice cream


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Investigator: Corruption investigation didn't include Gov. Rick Perry's office

 08/21/2014

 http://www.elpasotimes.com/news/ci_26376590/investigator-corruption-investigation-didnt-include-gov-rick-perrys

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The Legal Trouble That Could Haunt Rick Perry's Presidential Campaign

 Jun. 10, 2015

 http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2015/06/rick-perry-president-indictment

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Even when politicians are breaking the laws. The authorities illegally incarcerate many people, that should never have been put in jail.

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Texas has nation's largest prison population

 

August 14, 2012

 

 http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2012/08/14/162208/texas-has-nations-largest-prison.html

 

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We need to reform the Texas government, courts & prisons. We need to free all non-violent cannabis offenders that are incarcerated.

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The US Surgeon General Admits Science Is Real, Says Weed Has Medical Benefits

February 6, 2015

 http://www.vice.com/read/the-us-surgeon-general-admits-science-is-real-says-weed-has-medical-benefits-206

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Texas Is the Next Big Test for Legal Weed

December 30, 2014
Read other posts in this series:


 http://www.vice.com/read/texas-is-the-next-big-test-for-weed-legalization-1230

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Texas Legalizes Medical Marijuana Oils For Epilepsy

 06/01/2015

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/06/01/texas-legalizes-marijuana_n_7486232.html

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Tough Texas gets results by going softer on crime

November 27, 2014

 http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2014/11/27/tough-texas-gets-results-by-going-softer-on-crime/

AUSTIN — When it comes to crime, Texas has a reputation.
Since the Supreme Court reinstated capital punishment in 1976, Texas has executed more convicts than the next six states combined. More than 1 in 10 prisoners in the United States are incarcerated in the state, with the prison population there nearly tripling since 1992.
Tough on crime talk never went out of style here. But now Texas is drawing the spotlight for a very different incarceration trend.
A series of reforms implemented seven years ago has reversed the explosive growth of the inmate population. Now, the home of the most active death row in America is the model other states are looking to for ways to reduce their crime rate.
The genesis of all the good news came from a very grim time.
The number of inmates in Texas prisons skyrocketed during the 1990s and 2000s, when the war on drugs was in full swing and crime rates were high. The population grew from about 50,000 in 1990 to a peak of 173,000 in 2010, according to the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, a 346 percent increase. At the same time, the U.S. prison population doubled, to 1.5 million.
Texas couldn’t build prisons fast enough to accommodate the growing number of inmates. The state began shipping some to county prisons. Private, for-profit prisons sprang up to handle the overflow.
During Gov. Ann Richards’s (D) administration, the state built 100,000 new beds. But by 2006, even those beds were full. That year, Texas Department of Criminal Justice director Brad Livingston approached state legislators with a problem: Outside observers were projecting the state’s prison population would grow by 15,000 inmates in the following six years. He would need $523 million to build a sufficient number of prison beds to house those new inmates.
Livingston had strong relationships with the men he was asking for money.
State Sen. John Whitmire (D), the longest-serving member of the Texas legislature, had authored the penal code that sent the inmate population soaring in the 1990s.
State Rep. Jerry Madden (R), Whitmire’s counterpart in the House, was known as a conservative good ol’ boy with an affinity for law and order.





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Growing up in Austin, I have seen the corruption in politics, harming the state of Texas. A civilization that treats its people this way, also is responsible for not properly taking care of the environment either. This is why we need to reform the government in Texas, including how people are treated by the legal system, in the state of Texas.

 

If you would like more information on this subject, you can view the following videos and blogs, on my site. 

 

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 Pollution Science 101 - Cancer Investigated  (California)

 http://pollutionscience101cancerinvestigated.blogspot.com

 

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The DuPont investigation

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qn5Pjh00vEI  (http://dupontinvestigation.blogspot.com/)

 

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The Monsanto investigation

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yXr1z6fMOj4 (http://monsantoinvestigation.blogspot.com/)


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 Criminal workers of the CPS. - CPS & the courts investigated. - 1

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kHWJwlxE-jA&list=PL16319F4E84C3397B&index=1

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Chapter 14: Human Trafficking, Smuggling & Kidnapping- ( New chapter created on August 9th, 2015)

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We must put an end to all of the human trafficking, going on in the world. Do you ever think how nice it would be, to end human trafficking, smuggling and kidnapping. Our hearts and minds go out to all of the living beings, that have had to experience these events. It is our job as a civilization, to try to better our civilization. Many claim that with new technology, it is more difficult for individuals to go missing, in certain areas. However, we can see, that in the following chapter, that certain government officials, actually are helping and assisting with child trafficking, smuggling and kidnapping. This is why, as a civilization, we need to find the groups responsible for these events, and put a stop to child kidnapping and human trafficking, in this world.

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Texas ranks high in number of human trafficking victims

 Jun 03 2014

 

http://www.click2houston.com/news/texas-ranks-high-in-number-of-human-trafficking-victims/26305600

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Texas ranks No. 2 for human trafficking crime

 January 27, 2014

 http://crimeblog.dallasnews.com/2014/01/texas-ranks-no-2-for-human-trafficking-crime.html/

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Human trafficking

 

 http://dfw.cbslocal.com/tag/human-trafficking/

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  State Department Officials Overruled Their Own Human Trafficking Experts -

http://www.motherjones.com/mojo/2015/08/state-department-prevented-experts-shaming-politically-sensitive-countries-human-trafficking

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State Dept. watered down human-trafficking report

 Aug, 3, 2015


Researchers overruled as part of effort to shield 17 countries

(Reuters) In the weeks leading up to a critical annual U.S. report on human trafficking that publicly shames the world’s worst offenders, human rights experts at the State Department concluded that trafficking conditions hadn’t improved in Malaysia and Cuba. And in China, they found, things had grown worse.
The State Department’s senior political staff saw it differently — and they prevailed.

A Reuters examination, based on interviews with more than a dozen sources in Washington and foreign capitals, shows that the government office set up to independently grade global efforts to fight human trafficking was repeatedly overruled by senior American diplomats and pressured into inflating assessments of 14 strategically important countries in this year’s Trafficking in Persons report.

Read more at http://www.wnd.com/2015/08/state-dept-watered-down-human-trafficking-report/#UQpRtSVO84zCSIQI.99

 

http://www.wnd.com/2015/08/state-dept-watered-down-human-trafficking-report/

 

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 The following section will detail how different areas of the government, still protect and allow pedophile rings to operate.

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Bosnia: The United Nations, human trafficking and prostitution

 

21 August 2002
There is mounting evidence that the United Nations has carried out a cover-up of the role played by its personnel in human trafficking and prostitution in Bosnia—a trade that has grown astronomically since the establishment of the Western protectorate seven years ago.
An American woman who served with the International Police Task Force (IPTF) in Bosnia recently won a case of unfair dismissal against a US State Department sub-contractor, after she was sacked for reporting an alleged prostitution racket involving other serving officers.
Kathryn Bolkovac was an employee of DynCorp Technical Services, one of the US government’s top 25 service providers with 23,000 employees worldwide. In Bosnia DynCorp provides maintenance support for the US military, as well as recruiting American officers for the international police force through its UK subsidiary, DynCorp Aerospace Operations Ltd. DynCorp has earned $1 billion since 1995 for providing maintenance to the US military worldwide. The contract to provide recruitment for the IPTF is valued at $15 million.
The case against DynCorp Aerospace Operations Ltd was brought under the UK Public Interest Disclosure legislation, known as the “whistleblowers charter”, which protects employees who make disclosures about malpractice within their company. Bolkovac had been posted to Sarajevo in 1999 to investigate traffic in young women from Eastern Europe who were forced into prostitution.
“When I started collecting evidence from the victims of sex-trafficking, it was clear that a number of UN officers were involved from several different countries, including quite a few from Britain,” she said. “I was shocked, appalled and disgusted. They were supposed to be over there to help, but they were committing crimes themselves. But when I told the supervisors they didn’t want to know.”

 https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2002/08/bosn-a21.html


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 Johnny Gosch abduction Disturbing interview from 2005 - Elite's pedophile playground

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C5LyzuVUweU
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"Conspiracy of Silence" with extras, including John DeCamp interview

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-x-IZS8uKYo

 

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Some of these organised crime rings, are even being protected by the very government, that could stop a lot of these organised crime rings. Often, one or a few people end up taking the blame, for being a child kidnapper, for even many different murders. While this happens, many other people that are higher ranking members, associated with these crimes rings, never are caught to stand trial. This is why you often hear about some guy that ends up killing over several people, but you never hear about the organised kidnapping ring, that these individuals were a part of. Even many of these murderers are set free, to have the chance to harm more children.

 

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 A couple of the members of the Sidney Cooke Pedophile ring, have been set free, and are out in public, once again.

 

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The Sidney Cooke Paedophile ring

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=onj7pLrzJIM

 

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 Royal Family and UK Government Pedophiles Exposed!
 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pTCS8M8kCSk


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The Royal Secret Pedophile Network Exposed

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bWbebzxT6qk


----

 Jeffrey Epstein: The Sex Offender Who Mixes With Princes and Premiers

http://www.newsweek.com/2015/02/06/sex-offender-who-mixes-princes-and-premiers-302877.html

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Royal Family: Vultures On The Corpse Of Humanity

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ixVbciGUVmY

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Political Pedophilia: An open source investigation
 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=92T6cVlXcyg

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Even when FBI agents bust pedophile rings, they are told to stand down.
These pedophile rings even infiltrate churches and schools.

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Pedophile Rings Rule The World.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YZ379rX1KK0


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Pedophile rings by governments 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xT1F__GU8O0

Even Jimmy Savile gets a knighthood from the Monarchy & the Pope. This is why the royal political establishments need to collapse.

 
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Exposed:A World Run By Powerful Pedophiles

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VW9lIVj_nPU

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Pedophiles in Hollywood Conspiracy

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IS5n2L5Ga0A

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Rock Star Admits He’s Been to Snuff Parties Where People Are Murdered For Fun

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PDwBDs_TjM0

----------

Ritual child abuse in France: German documentary pt. 1/5


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MUzQ7aqFyiU

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Even many human rights organisations, are not concerned with slavery going on, in places such as Dubai. As we see eight minutes into the video "Slaves of Dubai."

---

Slaves of Dubai

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gMh-vlQwrmU

 

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 The following documentary, titled (The Monster of Belgium), shows how judges and government officials, help assist in the cover-up of child kidnapping rings.

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 KILLERS : marc dutroux - (the monster of Belgium)  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OIoMl0gWBZ8

 

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These accusations also question if high-ranking political officials in Belgium, are involved in this scandal. As a civilization, we must put an end to these groups that are associated with child trafficking and kidnapping. This also includes organisations that try to cover-up abuses towards children. This has happened on many occasions, with officials in the Vatican, trying to cover-up child abuse.

 

 

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U.N. Slams Vatican Over Child Abuse Cover-Up


Feb. 5, 2014

http://time.com/4481/u-n-slams-vatican-over-child-abuse-cover-up/

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Vatican defrocks 848 priests: Is sex abuse of children torture?


http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Latest-News-Wires/2014/0506/Vatican-defrocks-848-priests-Is-sex-abuse-of-children-torture

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Catholic Church sexual abuse cases

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catholic_Church_sexual_abuse_cases

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Catholic cops involved in cover-up of child abuse by priests



http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/catholic-cops-involved-in-coverup-of-child-abuse-by-priests-20150603-ghfwdt.html

 

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Pope Francis I and CIA 'Operation Condor' - Death Squads

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AOy1VVBPJxU

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Alex Jones: Is The Pope The Devil?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R2VqTQB-no0
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Pedophile Ring Now In Full Control Of The Vatican 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fpUU-4oI334

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 Even many countries, such as Mexico, have a very high rate of corruption in their government. Human trafficking and kidnapping, is rampant in Mexico.

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Anger grows over Mexico's missing as drug cartels turn to human trafficking

 Sunday 19 October 2014

The mass graves near Iguala are not unique in Mexico. And the whereabouts of 43 male students who disappeared in the south-west state of Guerrero three weeks ago remains another mystery in a country where the missing often do not return.
It is still unclear why or under whose orders the students were abducted, but the case has heaped pressure on the government not only to solve the crime but also address the wider problem of forced disappearances that affects great swathes of Mexico.

 http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/anger-grows-over-mexicos-missing-as-drug-cartels-turn-to-human-trafficking-9804286.html

 

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How Mexico’s Cartels Are Behind the Border Kid Crisis


07.09.14

 Mexico’s drug gangs have taken over the human-trafficking business along the border, and agents suspect they may have a hand in the unprecedented number of underage migrants stagnating in Texas’s detention centers.

http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/06/23/how-mexico-s-cartels-are-behind-the-border-kid-crisis.html

 

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Fear silences human trafficking victims: Mexico prosecutor

 May 26, 2015

 

http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/05/27/us-mexico-human-trafficking-idUSKBN0OC02820150527


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They say that Mexico is one of the most corrupt countries on this planet. Kyrgyzstan is among the twenty countries in the world, with the highest perceived level of corruption: the 2008 Corruption Perception Index  for Kyrgyzstan is 1.8 on a scale of 0 (most corrupt) to 10 (least corrupt).


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Bride Kidnapping in Kyrgyzstan

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DKAusMNTNnk


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Why Yemen Won't Ban Child Marriage and Rape



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c6U2nrRJ4HU 


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Is the US Ignoring Human Trafficking Abuses to Score Its TPP Trade Deal?


July 17, 2015

https://news.vice.com/article/is-the-us-ignoring-human-trafficking-abuses-to-score-its-tpp-trade-deal

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Nearly Two-Thirds of Human Trafficking Victims Are from Asia

 

 

 http://dailysignal.com/2014/11/20/nearly-two-thirds-human-trafficking-victims-asia/

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U.S. Cites Russia Among Worst in Human Trafficking

 Jun. 21 2013

http://www.themoscowtimes.com/news/article/us-cites-russia-among-worst-in-human-trafficking/481994.html

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Russia, China continue to allow human trafficking

 

https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/russia-china-continue-to-allow-human-trafficking/2013/06/23/57f14560-da9d-11e2-a016-92547bf094cc_story.html

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Human Trafficking in Africa

 http://www.africaecon.org/index.php/africa_business_reports/read/77

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Haiti's Brutal Kidnapping Frenzy

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cndnGwTh-T4

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The Boy Business '' Pedofilie in Amsterdam ''

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QsrlBUOrJ8s&list=PL5Z4IlzdDpjn1UOE6iZDwuhBEp2zw_3Ok

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Cutting Edge - Child Sex Trade Part 1

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mz8R3mC1TEg

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How Indonesia's Child Sex Trade Made It A Paedophile's Paradise

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iw_e-E00e-8

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Cambodia's Child Sex Trade Is Spiraling Out of Control


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t4ieL2PezjE

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Colombia’s coffee region threatened by mining, urbanization and human trafficking: Study

 

  Aug 6, 2013

 http://colombiareports.com/colombias-cultural-coffee-landscape-threatened-by-mining-industry/

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 Living in the Sewers of Colombia

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X4koXeZvAfg

----------

 We need to help the people of Colombia, from the murders going on in the streets of Colombia.

------------


Colombia's Hidden Killers: Part 1/2 (Documentary)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SKJblKuj84E

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Paramilitary Death Squads - Colombia

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nq3zIQGCkGU

---------

Wonderland Club paedophile ring (Operation Cathedral)

 

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WcsITzVKrNQ

 

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Different children are being tortured and exploited over the internet, in films. Many people still question if the government is really doing enough to stop this. Many of these individuals that are guilty, still are set free, to endanger more children.

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 One Step Ahead: Pedophiles
on the Deep Web

 January 28, 2015

 http://motherboard.vice.com/read/one-step-ahead-pedophiles-on-the-deep-web

--- 

 People even distribute video games over the internet, with people being kidnapped, as the main theme of the game. Trying to find missing children however, is not a game. I still feel that not enough is being done, to stop many of the real child kidnapping rings, that still exist.

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A Horror Game That May Be Hidden In The Darkest Corners Of The Internet [UPDATE]

http://kotaku.com/a-horror-game-hidden-in-the-darkest-corners-of-the-inte-1714980337

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It is too bad that we do not live in a more loving society. When we see the current amount of war, famine and the way people have been treated through the course of history. You would think that humans would evolve to accomplish many great things in the future. Yet, we can see the dark nature of many of the animals and people on this planet. I still feel that not enough is being done, to help many of these people. We are glad we could inform the public, on what is going on with child kidnapping rings, while different governments, still allow it to take place.


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Many high-ranking government officials and famous people have attended the Bohemian Grove.

 

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Bohemian Grove

  

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bohemian_Grove

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Many question if the recorded events inside of Bohemian Grove, are fake or real. Some question what looks like to be a ceremony, of a silhouette, being put through fire. It is important to add this video, because many politicians often attend these ceremonies. We now must question, what other types of secrets and events, are being hidden from the public.

-----

Bohemian Grove members. - Secret societies investigation part 2-15

  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2QfavRFsSz4&list=PL83FBFBF28EBC86B8&index=15

---------


Full Show - What The MSM Won't Cover - 07/23/2015

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k7U-1vtjg3c

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 Many different countries have secure borders, in order for security. As a sovereign nation, we must ensure that we have a secure civilization. This is why many people, want better regulations and security to be put in place, for individuals crossing different countries borders. Many also want a way, for indigenous people to be able to travel, and work, without too many restrictions. America won the Revolution. Countries such as Canada, still swear their loyality to the British Monarchy. Mexico was also founded, as an Empire of the Spainish Monarchy. Many American people ask the question, that when America defeated the monarchy, in 1776, how difficult it would be, to stop the political influences, of countries that were fighting for an empire. These empires were owned by a monarchy, which were owned by a royal family.